275 B: Part I: Fall 2009                  THE LONG 19th CENTURY, 1789-1914               Wed. 2-4

Margaret Lavinia Anderson                                                                                                            Email: 



                        This seminar provides an introduction to some central issues of Europe's "long 19th century":  the impact of the French Revolution; the intellectual and emotional origins of socialism; religious developments and "modernist" responses; the crisis of liberalism and of the international system. Woven through many of these topics is the story of the changing ways Europeans were defining community–as class, as confession, as empire, and especially as nation, whose dominance in the identities of 19th century Europeans we should not take for granted. Almost every reading that addresses a single country looks over its shoulder at another country or culture, and you are encouraged to get in the habit of making such sidelong, trans-national glances yourselves.


                        Members are required to turn in a 5-sentence summary of each book every week. (No need to include the articles.) You are expected to participate vigorously in discussion and to write a 10-12 page historiographical essay on a relevant theme of your own choosing,  due at the end of the semester. Book that are out of print, or exorbitantly expensive,  are designated with an *, indicating that xeroxed copies will be distributed in advance. (** in the recommended reading sections identifies items that I include among works recommended for orals preparation. )


                        In order to get as much as possible out of the seminar, it is wise to become familiar with a good textbook account of our announced period (c. 1780-1914). Some possibilities include: R. R. Palmer and Joel Colton, A History of the Modern World (any edition; esp. good on the French Revolution); Gordon Craig, Europe 1815-1914 (old, but still good); E.J. Hobsbawm [b. 1917], The Age of Revolution (1962); and in the Norton History of Modern Europe paperback series: Charles Breunig and Matthew Levinger, The Revolutionary Era 1789-1850 and Norman Rich, The Age of Nationalism 1850-90. 


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WEEK 1                   INTRODUCTION






John Darwin, After Tamerlane. The Global History of Empire Since 1405  (2008). 506pp. of text.



Kenneth Pomeranz, The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World

Economy (2000), 382pp. Colonies made the difference. Until then, a polycentric world: "no diffusion of unique  European results, no Wallersteinian modern world-system, no [André Gunder] Frankian China-centered world system," or so says the AHR's reviewer, June 2001.  

Another way to tell the anti-exceptionalism story.


E[ric].L. Jones, The European Miracle. Environments, Economies, and Geopolitics in the History of 

Europe and Asia (1981, 1987, 2003), 276pp., and his Growth Recurring. Economic Change in World 

History (1992), 247pp. Why the industrial revolution occurred in Europe and not elsewhere; but why it was bound to occur everywhere anyway.


**Alan Macfarlane, Marriage and Love in England: Modes of Reproduction, 1300-1840 (1986), 380pp.  Europe (i.e.g Britain) was exceptional. Brilliant argument by an anthropologist-historian about how the European Family Pattern gave birth to the Industrial Revolution.  Based on:


John Hajnal, "European Marriage Patterns in Perspective," in D.V. Glass and D.E.C. Eversley, eds., Population in History. Essays in Historical Demography (1964), 101-143. 


**Jan De Vries, “The Industrial Revolution and the Industrious Revolution” Journal of Economic History 54/2 (June 1994):  249-270.  A new look at the origins of Europe's industrial revolution, by Berkeley's own.  Original and influential.  A must for Orals. 


**Ronald Edward Robinson and John Gallagher, "The Imperialism of Free Trade," Economic History Review 6 (1953-54): 1-15.  Challenges the division of the British Empire into an Old and a New Imperialism; an early "revisionism" now close to orthodoxy.





WEEK 3                   THE GRANDE NATION:  France's Revolution & What It Hath Wrought




*R. R. Palmer, "Reflections on the French Revolution," Political Science Quarterly 67/1 (Mar. 1952): 64-80. 


*R. R. Palmer, "The World Revolution in the West: 1763-1801," Political Science Quarterly 69/1 (Mar. 1954): 



David A. Bell, The First Total War: Napoleon's Europe and the Birth of Warfare as We Know It (2007).  317pp.




**R. R. Palmer, "Preface" to Georges Lefebvre, The Coming of the French Revolution [trans. of Quatre-Vingt-Neuf, 1939] (1947),  v-xvi.  A brief introduction to Revolution  historiography.


**William Doyle, "A Consensus and its Collapse: Writings on Revolutionary Origins since 1939," in 

idem, Origins of the French Revolution (19882 ), 5-40.  The "Revolution" in the historiography of the Revolution since the 1960s. 


Alexis de Tocqueville, The Old Regime and the French Revolution (1856). A classic; but is he right?



Robin Einhorn, American Taxation, American Slavery (2006), Introduction.

Can a tax system be fascinating? Einhorn's colorful introduction looks in concrete terms at France's on the eve of the Revolution, compares it with Britain's, and then with the American colonies d. Brilliant revisionist take on the intertwining of systems of taxation, constitution, and (in-)equality in the American Republic.  


*T[im] C.W. Blanning, The French Revolution in Germany. Occupation and Resistance in the Rhineland 1792-1802 (1983).  336pp.  Brilliant piece of revisionism.


T. C. W. Blanning, The French Revolutinary Wars 1787-1802 (1996). Breathtakingly revisionist:

The revolution was "caused" by war; it became revolutionary by war; and it was defined by war.

A narrative of the classic events of the revolution, analyzed in light of this thesis.


Charles Ingrao, "War and Legitimation in Germany in the Revolutionary Age," in Reich 

oder Nation?  Mitteleuropa 1780-1815, ed. by H. Duchhardt and A. Kunz (1998), 1-19. How the

Revolution and its wars discredited the Enlightenment, previously flourishing, in Germany. 


Mark Levene, Genocide in the Age of the Nation State. Vol.  2: The Rise of the West and the Coming of Genocide (2005), esp. "Introduction to Volume II" and "The Vendée: A Paradigm Shift," 1-3; 103-161 (and footnotes on 358-72).  The second of a projected four volumes of a provocative new summa. Levene, argues Levine, is the product of the West and of Modernization. A short Vol. 1 develops his working definition of "genocide."  Vol. 2 is about our century though it begins with the conquest of the New World, then the Vendée, and (after an apparently inconsistent, given his thesis, excursus into the Middle Ages) ends with19th century imperialism. Impressively researched, full of insights, but not for those impatient with poor proof-reading and careless writing.


Timothy Tackett, "The West of France in 1789: The Religious Factors in the Origins of the Counter-

Revolution," Journal of Modern History 4 (1982): 715-45.


John McManners, The French Revolution and the Church (1969, 1982).  Brief. Excellent. 


Olwen Hufton, "The Reconstruction of a Church 1796-1891," in G. Lewis and C. Lucas, eds., 

Beyond the Terror: Essays in French Regional and Social History (1983), 19-35.  De-de-christianization brings women into the picture. 


François Furet, "The Revolution Is Over," in Interpreting the Revolution (1981 trans. of "Le catéchisme révolutionnaire" [1971], which had been reprinted in Penser la Revolution Française, 1978). Attack (by former Communist, and leading historian of the Revolution of his generation) on the political assumptions undergirding France's national historiography of the Revolution. 


Isser Woloch, "On the Latent Illiberalism of the French Revolution," AHR 95, no. 5 (Dec. 1990): 

1452-1470. After 200 years, is the French Revolution really "over"? Reviews Furet and Ozouf's Dictionary of the French Revolution, and its place in the historiography. 


T.C.W. Blanning, ed., The Rise and Fall of the French Revolution (1996).  Articles by the reigning giants.







Edward P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class (Random, 1966), 848pp. 






R. Carrie and R. M. Hartwell, "The Making of the English Working Class?" Economic History Review New Series 18/3 (1965): 633-643.  Very skeptical review of Thompson.


**E.P. Thompson, "The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century," and "The Moral Economy Revisited," both in idem Customs in Common (1991). The first is one of the most influential articles published in English in the last 50 years.


Anna Clark, The Struggle for the Breeches. Gender an the Making of the British Working Class (1995). Heavy going, but it won the British Council Prize in the Humanities of North American Conference on British Studies.


Gareth Stedman Jones, "Working Class Culture and Working Class Politics in London, 1870-1900. 

Notes on the Remaking of a Working Class," Journal of Social History 7/4 (Summer, 1974): 460-508. 


**Joel Mokyr, "Introduction" in idem, ed., The British Industrial Revolution, an economic perspective (1993), 1-132.  Comprehensive, analytical survey of ALL the historiographical controversies surrounding the IR. Ideal for Orals preparation.


**David Spring, "Landed Elites Compared," in idem, European Landed Elites in the Nineteenth Century 

(1977), 1-21. Junkers, Spanish grandees, Russian and English gentry-and-aristocrats, viewed cross-nationally. Great for Orals preparation. 


**F. M. L. Thompson, "Britain," in D. Spring, European Landed Elites in the Nineteenth Century (1977), 22-44. Excellent.  


John Pocock, "The Limits and Divisions of British History. In Search of the Unknown Subject," 

AHR (1982).  Classic: on the problems of conceptualizing "national" histories.








Martin Malia, Alexander Herzen and the Birth of Russian Socialism. 1812-1855 (1961), 486pp. 

Try (Not to be confused with -- a porn site.) If unsuccessful, 

a xerox is available. 







Martin Malia, "What is the Intelligentsia" in Richard Pipes, ed. The Russian Intelligentsia 

(1961),  1-18.


Michael B. Petrovic, "The Peasant in Nineteenth-Century Historiography," in Wayne S. Vucinich, The Peasant in Nineteenth Century Russia (1968), 191-230.


Iurii Lotman, "The Decembrist in Daily Life," in D. & A. Nakhimovsky, eds., The Semiotics of

Russian Culture (1985). By a renowned Soviet anthropologist.


Isaiah Berlin, Karl Marx. His Life and Environment (1963).  Marx as Hegelian idealist philosopher.









Mack Walker, German Home Towns. Community, State, and General Estate, 1648-1871. 

(1971, 1998), 473pp. 






James J. Sheehan, "What Is German History? Reflections on the Role of the Nation in German 

History and Historiography," Journal of Modern History 53, Mar. 1981: 1-23.  A challenge to the paradigm still dominant in the Federal Republic of Germany.


George Williamson, "Who Killed August von Kotzebue? The Temptations of Virtue and the Political 

Theology of German Nationalism 1789-1819," Journal of Modern History 72 (Dec. 2000): 890-943.

Exciting on early German nationalism. 


Deborah Hertz "Intermarriage in the Berlin Salons," Central European History XVI/4 (Dec. 1983): 303-

344.  Berlin was no Home Town.  Provocative look at acculturation: was it good for (Jewish) women?  


Christopher R. Friedrichs, "But Are We Any Closer to Home?: Early Modern German Urban History Since German Home Towns," Central European History 30/2 (1997): 163-86. 


William W.  Hagen, "The Descent of the Sonderweg: Hans Rosenberg's History of Old Regime Prussia,"  Central European History 24/1 (Spr. 1991):  24-50.


David Blackbourn and Geoff Eley,  The Peculiarities of German History (1982). Germany's missing "French Revolution" and its consequences, critically examined. An attack on German exceptionalism.



Helmut Walser Smith, The Continuities of German History. Nation, Religion, and Race across the Long Nineteenth Century (2008). Paperback. Where does nation-thinking start in Germany? Arguing that our picture will always depend upon our perspective ––i.e., where we put our "vanishing point" ––in a series of loosely connected essays, each offering a different perspective on the question of continuity in German nationalism, Smith revisits the Sonderweg debate by putting his vanishing point at 1943, the height of the Shoah.







Ernest Gellner, Nations and Nationalism (Cornell, 1983). 150pp.  


*J. S. Mill, "Of Nationality as Connected with Representative Government," in  Representative Government (1861), 380-388.


Ernest Renan, "What Is A Nation?" (1882). On line. Use unabridged version.  In English and French.

*Roderick Davison, "Nationalism as an Ottoman Problem and the Ottoman Response," in W.W. Haddad and W.  Ochsenwald, ed., Nationalism in an Non-National State: Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (Ohio,  1977), 25-56.





**Yuri Slezkine, The Jewish Century (2004), 438pp.  Not your grandmother's Jewish history.

Mostly about the 20th century, but the first two chapters, especially, are relevant to thinking about "nation."


Charles and Barbara Jelavich, The Establishment of the Balkan National States, 1804-1920 (1977).  A useful empirical narrative against which to test Gellner's analysis in the part of Europe where it may matter the most.


M. Şükrü Hanioğlu, The Young Turks in Opposition (1995), 390pp. Covers 1889-1902. An astringently non-celebratory treatment of the intellectual founders of the modern Turkish Republic. Since until the Balkan Wars of 1912- 13 the heart of the Ottoman Empire lay in Rumelia -- the European half of the empire, much of the Young Turk movement originated there. As avowed Westernizers, they form a useful point of departure for considering the dual poles of nation (ethnicity) and empire in the modern period.  Its density makes this book rough going, but  Ch. 7 offers a useful summary of many of the findings and argument.  


Shulamit Volkov, "Antisemitism as a Cultural Code," Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 23 (1978): 25-46.   Modernity's reflection in inter-group hostilities. 


Sydney Pollard, Peaceful Conquest. The Industrialization of Europe 1760-1970 (1982).  Interrogating the role of the state and/or nation state in economic development; a new twist on metropol and periphery, dependency-theory (empire!), and the mechanism of deindustrialization. Some of the same processes of penetration that are described in Eugen Weber, below, transposed onto the economy -- but without the state!  Does European industrialization put pressure on Gellner's thesis?

Fritz Stern,  Gold and Iron. Bismarck, Bleichroeder, and the Building of the German Empire (1977), 672pp.   If Gellner is right, then did Bismarck not matter? Does the narrative of Germany's unification put pressure on Gellner's thesis?


Anthony Smith, Chosen Peoples: Sacred Sources of National Identity (2004).  Does religion put pressure on Gellner's thesis?


The transcript of (an earlier) debate between Gellner and Anthony Smith may be found at:


Damian Tambini, “Explaining Monoculturalism: Beyond Gellner’s Theory of Nationalism,” Critical Review, Vol. 10, No. 2 (Spring, 1996), 251-270.


Bernard Yack, “The Myth of the Civic Nation,” Critical Review, Vol. 10, No. 2 (Spr, 1996), 

193-211.  On the artificiality of the fashionable distinction between ethnic and civic nationalism.


John Hall, ed., The State of the Nation: Ernest Gellner and the Theory of Nationalism (1998), esp. Brendan O’Leary, “Ernest Gellner’s diagnoses of nationalism: a critical overview, or, what is living and what is dead in Ernest Gellner’s philosophy of nationalism?”  




WEEK 8                                           THE  "NATION'S"  WORST ENEMY


*Christopher Clark, "The New Catholicism and the European Culture Wars," in Christopher Clark and Wolfram Kaiser, ed.,  Culture Wars. Secular-Catholic Conflict in Nineteenth-Century Europe (2003), 11-46.  Multi-multi-multi-national analysis. 


David Blackbourn, Marpingen. Apparitions of the Virgin Mary in Bismarckian Germany (1993), 510pp.  Out of print, but copies to buy on-line can be found.  If not, a xerox is available.






Helmut Walser Smith, Nationalism and Religious Conflict. Culture, Politics, and Ideology 1870-1914 (1995), 271pp.  Catholics, Protestants; Germans, Austrians, and Poles. Applies Gellner to Central Europe. 


Margaret Lavinia Anderson, "The Divisions of the Pope:  The Catholic Revival and Europe's 

Transition to Democracy," in Austen Ivereigh (ed.) Religion and Politics in Nineteenth-Century Europe and Spanish America (1999), 22-41. 


Ralph Gibson, A Social History of French Catholicism, 1789-1914 (1989), 322pp.  Superb. 


John McManners, Church and State in France, 1870-1914 (1972), 191pp.  Informative, interesting -- and concise!


Jan E. Goldstein, "The Hysteria Diagnosis and the Politics of Anticlericalism in Late Nineteenth-

Century France," JMH 54 (1982): 209-239.  Anxieties of the medical establishment.


Ruth Harris, Lourdes. Body and Spirit in the Secular Age (Penguin, 1999), 473pp.  Fun. 


Kenneth Scott Latourette, Christianity in a Revolutionary Age: a history of Christianity in the 

nineteenth and twentieth centuries (1958, 1959). Vol I. The nineteenth century in Europe: background and the Roman Catholic phase. Protestant scholar offers invaluable overview and detail, addressing political as well as religious themes: revolution and Catholic responses and institutional, devotional, intellectual, and national transformation.  Vol. 2 The nineteenth century in Europe: the Protestant and Eastern churches. Country-by-country examination of theology, Biblical and historical studies, awakenings and revivals, and organizations and squabbles.




WEEK 9                                             IS THE NATION REALLY AN EMPIRE?


Eugen Weber, Peasants into Frenchmen. The Modernization of Rural France 1870-1914 

(1976), 615pp.  




Charles Tilly, "Did the Cake of Custom Break?" in John Merriman, ed., Consciousness and Class Experience in Nineteenth Century Europe (1979), 17-44.  Critiques Weber. 


Jeremy King, Budweisers into Czechs and Germans. A Local History of Bohemian Politics. 1848-1948 (2002), 304pp.  How it happened under the Habsburgs. 


Leslie P. Choquette, Frenchmen into Peasants: Modernity and Tradition into the Peopling of French Canada (1997).  Eugen Weber reversed?


Michael Hechter, Internal Colonialism. The Celtic Fringe in British National Development, 

1536-1966 (1974). Still influential. 


Flora Thompson, Lark Rise to Candleford ([1945; 2000), 556pp.  Autobiography. On rural England

in the 1880s,  its narrative beautifully embodies the processes of "penetration" and changing mentalities

analyzed by Eugen Weber and Sydney Pollard elsewhere. One of the great books. 


George L. Mosse, The Nationalization of the Masses. Political Symbolism and Mass Movements in 

Germany from the Napoleonic Wars through the Third Reich (1975). Is this how peasants and artisans

were turned into  Germans? Cultural history before the "new" cultural history. 


Michael Burns, Rural Society and French Politics. Boulangism and the Dreyfus Affair (1984). Populism in the countryside. Revisionist on Boulangism and the Dreyfus affair. Contrast with:


Pierre Birnbaum, The Antisemitic Moment. A Tour of France in 1898 (1998, 2003).  The argument isn't new, but the wealth of information is. 





WEEK 10                                     HOW AN EMPIRE IS NOT A NATION


Robert D. Crews, For Prophet and Tsar. Islam and Empire in Russia and Central Asia (2006), 480pp.   


                        Note the contrast between Crews's general picture and that of:


*Peter Holquist, "To Count, To Extract, To Exterminate: Population Statistics and Population 

Politics in Late Imperial and Soviet Russia," in Empire and Nation in the Age of Lenin and Stalin, eds. Terry Martin and Ronald Grigor Suny (2001), 111-44.





James J. Sheehan, "States and Empires: The Problem of Legitimate Violence." Unpublished 

"think piece" on what an empire is, for Vienna Conference on Imperium, 2005.  I've got copies.


John P. LeDonne, The Russian empire and the World, 1700-1917: The Geopolitics of Expansion 

and containment (1997), 416pp. Breathtaking  -- but empirical. 


Brian Glyn Williams, "Hijra and Forced Migration from Nineteenth-Century Russia to the Ottoman Empire: A Critical Analysis of the Great Crimean Tatar Emigration of 1860-1861," Cahiers du Monde Russe 41 (2000). 


John F. Baddeley, Russian Conquest of the Caucasus, with a new Foreward by Moshe Gammer (Richmond, England, 1999). 


Moshe Gammer, Muslim Resistance to the Tsar: Shamil and the Conquest of Chechnia and Daghestan (Portland, Ore., 1994)












*Suzanne L. Marchand, German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race, and Scholarship (2009).




Edward Said, Orientalism (1979).


Tony Ballantyne, Orientalism and Race: Aryanism in the British Empire (2002). 


George L. Mosse, The Crisis of German Ideology. Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich (1964, 1981).


George L. Mosse, "Jewish Volkish Thought," in idem, Germans and Jews: The Right, the Left, and the Search for a 'Third Force' in Pre-Nazi Germany (1971). The lure of völkish ideas for Martin Buber and others. 






J.P. Daughton, An Empire Divided: Religion, Republicanism, and the Making of French 

Colonialism, 1880-1914 (2006), 352pp.  Winner of the Heggoy Prize by the French Colonial Historical Society. 





Paul Schroeder, "The Mirage of Empire," unpublished AHA paper, 2004.  I have it and can make copies.


Ronald Edward Robinson and John Gallagher, with Alice Denny. Africa and the Victorians: the 

official mind of  imperialism (2nd ed., 1981), 491pp. A modern classic. But easier (for non-specialists preparing for exams) is>


**William Roger Louis, ed., Imperialism: The Robinson and Gallagher Controversy (1976). Anthology of the debate over the Robinson and Gallagher theses (both the one in the article, and the rather different one in their book).


Bernard Porter, The Absent-Minded Imperialists. Empire, Society, and Culture in Britain

(2004),  321pp.   How much did "Empire" matter to the Brits?   The case for "not much."




Bernard Semmel, Democracy versus Empire: The Jamaica riots of 1865 and the Governor Eyre Controversy (1964, 1969), 200pp. How much did empire "bother" the Brits? A case for "a lot."  A useful counter to Porter––especially since it disrupts his periodization. Earlier published as: Jamaican Blood and the Victorian Conscience and as The Governor Eyre Controversy. Used copies under all three titles are available from Amazon and other on-line companies. Otherwise, I can furnish a xerox.  


Adam Hochschild, King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa (1999) 400 pp. Paperback. How much did Belgians empire matter to (some) Brits? To the Congolese/

A prize-winning work of narrative history by a member of Berkeley's own school of journalism.


Bruce Vandervort, Wars of Imperial Conquest in Africa 1830-1914 (1998). Short, but with lots of interesting information.


Isabel V. Hull, Absolute Destruction. Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany (2005), 384pp. The first three chapters are on the genocide of the Herero in German South West Africa. 






George Dangerfield (1904-1986), The Strange Death of Liberal England (1935), 449pp. 






Seth Koven, Slumming. Sexual and Social Politics in Victorian England (2004). What Victorians really cared about.  Fine example of the New Cultural History. 


Gertrude Himmelfarb, The Demoralization of Society: from Victorian Virtues to Modern Values

(Knopf, 1995), 314pp. (1995), 314pp.  Playdoyer for neo-Victorianism.  Himmelfarb's concept of "moral imagination" is both used and critiqued by Koven, above. 


Steven Marcus, The Other Victorians. A Study of Sexuality and Pornography in mid-19th century England (1966), 292pp.  Marcus, who taught literature at Columbia, launched the cultural history of sex and of the West's obsession with masturbation that culminated in Thomas Laqueur's Solitary Sex (2004).


G. R. Searle, Corruption in British Politics: 1895-1930 (1985). American women and American money; the influx of other wealthy foreigners (of perhaps Jewish origin?); money in politics and attendant cultural insecurities, which blossom in the war into full-scale paranoia. Provokes the question: if  Britain had lost the war, might a genocide have happened here?



Michael R. Gordon (now the military affairs correspondent of the NY Times!), "Domestic Conflict and the Origins of the First World War: The British and German Cases," Journal of Modern History 46 (June 1974): 191-226. 


Wolfgang J. Mommsen, "Domestic Factors in German Foreign Policy before 1914," Central European History, VI (1973),  in James Sheehan, ed., Imperial Germany (1976).


Niall Ferguson, "Public Finance and National Security: The Domestic Origins of the First World War Revisited," Past and Present 142 (Feb. 1994): 141-68.


Hans-Ulrich Wehler, The German Empire (1972), 293pp. For years, the paradigm.  

Readers of  German should see the review by Thomas Nipperdey, "Wehlers 'Kaiserreich.' 

Eine kritische Auseinandersetzung," Geschichte und Gesellschaft I (1975); reprinted in idem,  

Gesellschaft, Kultur, Theorie (1976).  Wehler's 1985 edition pulled in its horns.


Margaret Lavinia Anderson, Practicing Democracy. Elections and Political Culture in

Imperial Germany (2000), 483pp.  Contra-Wehler and other arguments for German exceptionalism.


Stefan-Ludwig Hoffman, Civil Society (2006), 89 pp.  Update on theory and historiography.




                                  AUGUST 1914


Laurence Lafore, The Long Fuse. An Interpretation of the Origins of World War I (1965, 1971), 282pp.  Not just a narrative.  Be sure that you "get" the argument.


*Paul W. Schroeder, "Embedded Counterfactuals and World War I as an Unavoidable War," in 

idem, Systems, Statecraft, and Stability (2004), 157-91.  


Paul W. Schroeder, "The Risks of Victory. An Historian's Provocation," The National Interest 

 (Winter 2001/02): 22-36.  Available on line: Melvyl, select The National Interest, ProQuest Research Library. It doesn't seem to give it to you if you search by title, but if you search by Paul W. Schroeder, it gives you two choices, one of which is this.  If all else fails, you can find it (full of awful advertisements) under





Paul W. Schroeder, "The Nineteenth-Century International System: Changes in the Structure," 

World Politics, 39/1 (1986): 1-26.


Paul W. Schroeder, "Austria-Hungary in the International System before 1914: What Changed?" 

(ms. 1998). I can give you a copy.


Paul W. Schroeder, "World War I as Galloping Gertie: A Reply to Joachim Remak," Journal of Modern History 44/3 (Sept. 1972): 319-45. 


Norman Rich, Great Power Diplomacy 1814-1914 (McGraw Hill, 1992); and idem, Great Power Diplomacy Since 1914 (2003).  Paperback. There is absolutely nothing that approaches Rich for succinctness, comprehensiveness, accuracy -- and lack of bias.  Everyone should own these volumes. Even if you are not interested in international history, you will find over the years that you can't do without them, in writing lectures and as a reference (e.g., when you need to know things like what really happened and/or was at stake in the Moroccan Crises). 


Charles Tilly, "How Empires End," in Karen Barkey and Mark von Hagen, eds.,  After Empire. Multiethnic Societies and Nation-Building. The Soviet Union and the Russian, Ottoman, and Habsburg Empires (1997), 1-11.


Caglar Keyder, "The Ottoman Empire," in After Empire (above), 30-44. 


Christopher Clark, Kaiser Wilhelm II (2000), 271pp.  Subtle, thoroughly revisionist, and superb. 


**István Deák, Beyond Nationalism. A Social and Political History of the Habsburg Officer Corps (1990). How all Budweisers (and/or Croats, Hungarians, and Germans, e tutti quanti) don't become nationals. Brilliant "defense" of the empire, as well as a vivid portrait of the "daily life" of its poor defenders.


István Deák, “How to construct a productive, disciplined, monoethnic society: the dilemma of east central European governments, 1914-1956,” in Amir Weiner (ed.), Landscaping the Human Garden: Twentieth-Century Population Management in a Comparative Framework (2003)


Rogers Brubaker, “Aftermaths of empire and the unmixing of peoples,” in his Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the national question in the New Europe (1996). 


Rogers Brubaker, “National minorities, nationalizing states, and the external homelands in the New Europe, ” also in the above.






                        285-B Anderson, 2009                    PAGE  13