Anderson/History/280


History 280                                                                                           Spring 2006

World War I: Crucible of the 20th Century

Friday 12-2.  Place: 2303 Dwinelle

email: mlavinia@berkeley.edu


Professor  Margaret Lavinia Anderson

Office: 2315 Dwinelle; Phone 642-6246            

Office hours:  2-4 Wednesda

 

REQUIREMENTS:   In addition to vigorous participation, seminar members will have three assignments, whose goals

are to provide practice in reviewing, pedagogy, and analysis, respectively:  1) a five-sentence summary of each week's book, due at the meeting at which that book is discussed; 2) responsibility for leading at least one week's discussion (not to be confused with making a "presentation," which I shall not ask anyone to do); 3) a short paper (no longer than 10-12 pages), due at the end of the semester, either analyzing and interpreting a single contemporary document/source or summarizing

and analyzing recent developments in a particular field or sub-field. I have tried to alternate long-book with shorter-book weeks and in order to give you time to write this paper, the assignment for our last week -- to watch and discuss a film and to read one article -- is deliberately short 

                If it turns out that most of the seminar has already read (for example) Horne and Kramer, German Atrocities, 1914, or Paul Fussell, The Great War and Modern Memory, we may wish to substitute other books, or we may wish to extend discussion of some of the other readings over two weeks. We can talk about this at our first meeting. Similarly, the assignment of the last week is also negotiable.

In order not to waste a week, I hope everyone will be able to prepare the reading for the first class, so that we will be ready to hit the ground running.

BOOKS:  The following books have been ordered, but as some are out of print, we may have to rely on xeroxes. Short articles will be distributed in handouts. You may be able to get used or cheaper copies by on-line book sources, such as bookfinder.com, powells.com, amazon, barnes and noble, and others.

Lawrence Lafore, The Long Fuse. An Interpretation of the Origins of World War I  ([1961; Waveland

Press, 1997]. ISBN 0881339547. Paper.

David G(aius) Herrmann, The arming of Europe and the making of the First World War (Princeton UP,

1996, 1997). ISBN 0691033749 Cloth; ISBN: 0691015953. Paper.

John Horne and Alan Kramer, German Atrocities, 1914. A History of Denial (Yale UP, 2001).

ISBN 0300107919.  Paper.

John Keegan, The Face of Battle (Penguin, 1974). ISBN 0140048979. Paper.

Vera Brittain, Testimony of Youth: An Autobiographical Study of the Years 1900-1925

([1933], Penguin 20th Century Classic, 1994). ISBN 0140188444. Paper.

Eric Lohr, Nationalizing the Russian Empire : the campaign against enemy aliens during World

                                War I (Harvard UP, 2003). ISBN 0674010418. Cloth.

Donald Bloxham, The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the

Armenians (Oxford UP, 2005). ISBN 0199273561. Cloth.

Isabel V. Hull, Absolute Destruction, Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany

(Cornell UP, 2005). ISBN  0801442583. Cloth.

Mark Levene, War, Jews, and the New Europe: the diplomacy of Lucien Wolf, 1914-1919 (Oxford

UP, 1992). ISBN 0197100724. Cloth. Out of print. Xerox available.

Leonard Smith, Between Mutiny and Obedience. The Case of the French Fifth Infantry Division during

World War I (Princeton UP, 1994).  ISBN 0691033048. Cloth.

David M. Kennedy, Over Here. The First World War and American Society  (Oxford UP,1980).

ISBN 0195032098. Paper.

Paul Fussell, The Great War and Modern Memory (Oxford UP, 1977). ISBN 0195021711. Paper.

Jay Winter, Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning: The Great War in European Cultural History.

Cambridge UP, 1995). ISBN: 0421639883. Paper.

Margaret Olwen MacMillan, Paris 1919. Six Months that Changed the World ([London, 2001], New York, 2002)

ISBN  0375508260 Cloth. ISBN  0719559391 Paper.

Also published under: : Peacemakers: The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 and Its Attempt to

                                End War (2002). I assume that they are the same. 

Schedule:

I.  1/20            Introductory discussion: The Imagined Future; Origins Revisited

                               Reading: Anon. [Lt. Col. G. T. Chesney], "The Battle of Dorking: Reminiscences of a Volunteer" (1871,

fiction), I.F. Clarke, ed., The Tale of the Next Great War, 1871-1914 (Syracuse UP, 1995), 3-48. Also Clark's Introduction to his 1992 book, Voices Prophesying War), ix-xxi. To be read before Class. Xeroxed handouts of both will be available in History Department Office, 3229 Dwinelle.

Laurence Lafore, The Long Fuse. An Interpretation of the Origins of World War I ([1971].  284pp.

 II.  1/27           A Cause of World War I?

                 Reading:

                David G. Herrmann, The Arming of Europe and the Making of the First World War (1996). 307pp.   

Possible Follow-Ups::

Paul W. Schroeder, "World War I as Galloping Gertie: A Reply to Joachim Remak," Journal of Modern

History 44/3 (Sept. 1972): 319-45.

                –––––––––––––––, "Austria-Hungary in the International System before 1914: What Changed?" (ms. 1998)

–––––––––––––––, "The Risks of Victory. An Historian's Provocation," The National Interest

  (Winter 2001/02): 22-36. 

James Joll, The Origins of the First World War (NY: Longman, 1984).  ISBN 0582490162.  Paper

Christopher Clark, Kaiser Wilhelm II (New York: Longman, 2000). Superb, subtle, thoroughly revisionist.

Keith Wilson, ed., Decisions for War, 1914 (1995). Articles on Austria-Hungary, Germany, Serbia, Russia,

France, Belgium, Britain, Japan, and the Ottoman Empire (latter esp. good).

III.  2/3            Atrocities in Belgium: The Myth, The Memory

                Reading

John Horne and Alan Kramer, German Atrocities, 1914. A History of Denial  (2001).  624pp. 

                        Cultural Alliance of German Scholars and Artists, "Appeal to the Civilized Nations" (Nov. 1914), with

                 (Appel aux nations civilisées), preface, and first set of responses by the economists Yves Guyot &

                Daniel Bellot and the rebuttal by Lujo Brentano, their liberal German counterpart. In Kulturbund etc.,

                Briefwechsel zwischen den Herrn Yves Guyot und Daniel Bellot und Herrn Lujo Brentano… ( Jan.

                1915). Xeroxed handout.

Possible Follow-Ups:

Paul Smith, "The Kiss of France: The Republic and the Alsatians during the First World War," in Panikos

Panayi, ed., Minorities in Wartime. National and Racial Groupings in Europe, North America and

Australia during the Two World Wars (Berg, 1993), 27-49.

                Ernst Lissauer, "Chant of Hate" (14 Nov. 1914), poem, in Marilyn Shevin-Coetzee and Frans

                                Coetzee, eds., World War I and European Society: A Sourcebook (1995)

IV.  2/10          A German Way of War?   [MEETING WILL HAVE TO BE RE-SCHEDULED!]

Reading: Isabel V. Hull, Absolute Destruction, Military Culture and the Practices of War in

Imperial Germany (2005).  333pp

                Possible Follow-Ups:

Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius, War Land on the Eastern Front: Culture, National Identity, and German

Occupation in World War I (2001). On "Oberost" i.e., Lithuania, under German occupation.

                Avner Offner, "The Blockade of Germany and the Strategy of Starvation, 1914-1918. An Agency Perspective,"

                               in Roger Chickering and Stig Förster, Great War, Total War. Combat and Mobilization on the Western

                               Front 1914-1918 (2000), 169-88. For comparison. Was the British strategy to start German civilians as a way

                               to win the war morally different from the Turkish starvation of Armenian civilians?

C. Paul Vincent, The Politics of Hunger: The Allied Blockade of Germany, 1915-1919 (Ohio UP,  c1985).

Same question.

                Fritz Fischer, Germany's Aims in the First World War ([1961], 1967). Classic indictment of Germany.

Gerald D. Feldman, ed., German Imperialism 1914-1918. The Development of a Historical Debate (1972).

On the controversy Fischer unleashed. Documents and Interpretations.

                Roger Chickering, Imperial Germany and the Great War, 1914-1918 (1998). Excellent synthesis of Germany's

                                wartime policies, experience.

V.  2/17             The Experience of War: Men

                Reading:

                John Keegan, The Face of Battle (1974). 368pp.

Poems: Xerox handouts. Please Read in order, but save Wilfred Owen's "Disabled" for our last week.

Rupert Brooke (1887-1915, d. age 28), "Peace" and "A Soldier" from "1914"

Siegfried Sassoon (186-1967, d. age 81), "A Working Party" (March 1916)

Charles Hamilton Sorley (1895-1915, d. age 20), "In Memoriam S.C.W., V.C." (8 Sept. 1915) and

"When you see millions of the mouthless dead" (1915)

Wilfred Owen (1893-1918, d. age 25), "Dulce Et Decorum Est"

Siegfried Sassoon, "Suicide in the Trenches"

Wilfred Owen, "The Parable of the Old Man and the Young" (taken from Genesis)

e.e. cummings (1894-1962, d. age 68), "my sweet old etcetera"

Edgell Rickword (1898--?), "The Soldier Addresses His Body"

Siegfried Sassoon, "Glory of Women"

Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), "Common Form."

Possible Follow-Ups:

Hew Strachan, The First World War (Penguin, 2003). Best short account.

Hew Strachan, The First World War. Vol. I: To Arms. (Oxford UP, 2001). When complete, will be the best.

Stépane Audoin-Rouzeau and Annette Becker, 14-18. Understanding the Great War ([Paris, Gallimard: 2000]

New York, Hill & Wang, 2002.

                Giovanni Papini, "The War as a Source of National Renewal" (15 Nov. 1914)  and

                Filippo T. Marinetti, "The War as the Catharsis of Italian Society" (29 Nov. 1914), both in

                                Roger Griffen,  ed., Fascism (Oxford UP, 1995). Italian intellectuals for intervention 

VI.  2/24          An Experience of War:  Women

Reading:

Vera Brittain (1893-1970), Testament of Youth: An Autobiographical Study of the Years 1900-1925 (1933)

                672pp.

       Possible Follow-Ups:

George Dangerfield, The Strange Death of Liberal England (1937). Read the last chapter, "A Budding Grove"

                to see how a later, more cynical generation from Vera Brittain's viewed Rupert Brooke.

Ruth Harris, "The 'Child of the Barbarian': Rape, Race, and Nationalism in France during the First World

War," Past & Present 141 (1993): 170-206.

Mata Hari, "Letter to Captain Bouchardon, 5 June 1917," and

Rebecca West, "Hands that War: The Cordite Makers," both in Margaret R.  Higonnet, Lines of Fire: Women

Writers of World War I (Penguin, 1999).

Ute Daniel, The War from  Within, German Working Class Women in the First World War (Berg:

Leamington Spa, 1997).

Susan B. Grayzel, Women's Identities at War. Gender, Motherhood, and Politics in Britain and France during

the First World War (1999). (Once a Berkeley dissertation).

Lynne Hanley, Writing War: Fiction, Gender, and Memory (U. of Massachusetts Press, 1991).               

VII.   3/3          The Fate of Minorities in Authoritarian Societies

Reading:

Eric Lohr, The Nationalization of the Russian Empire. The Campaign against Enemy Aliens during

World War I  (2003) 256pp.

Donald Bloxham, The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the

Armenians (2005). 329 pp

Possible Follow-Ups:

Peter Gatrell, A Whole Empire Walking. Refugees in Russia during World War I (1999).

                Mark van Hagen, "The Great War and the Mobilization of Ethnicity in the Russian Empire,"

                                in Barnett R. Rubin and Jack Snyder, eds., Post-Soviet Political Order. Conflict and State Building,

                                (1998), 34-57.

Eric Lohr, “The Russian Army and the Jews: Mass Deportation, Hostages, and Violence during World

                War I,” Russian Review, 2001, v.60, n.3, pp.404-419.

Alexander V. Prusin, “The Russian Military and the Jews in Galicia, 1914-1915,” in Eric Lohr and Marshall Poe

                (eds.), The Military and Society in Russia, 1450-1917 (Leiden, 2002) pp.525-544.

Alexander Victor Prusin,  Nationalizing a borderland : war, ethnicity, and anti-Jewish violence in east

                Galicia, 1914-1920 (Tuscaloosa : University of Alabama Press, c2005) Main Stack   DS135.R92.P78 2005

Joshua A. Sanborn, “Unsettling the Empire: Violent Migrations and Social Disaster in Russia during World War

                I,” Journal of Modern History (June 2005) 77/2: 290-325.

Joshua A. Sanborn(who also appears in the Smirnov book) , "The Mobilization of 1914 and the Question of the Russian Nation," and

Scott Seregny, "Peasants, Nation, and Local Government in Wartime Russia," both in

Slavic Review 59/2  (summer 2000): 267-89, and 336-42.

       Daniel Orlovsky, "The Great War and Russian Memory."  Manuscript (2001 published in Russian only) (14pp)

                                I have a xerox I can give anyone who wants it.

W. Bruce Lincoln, Passage Through Armageddon. The Russians in War and Revolution, 1914-1918 (1986)

A gripping general history.

Stephan H. Astourian, "Modern Turkish Identity and the Armenian Genocide. From Prejudice to

Racist Nationalism," in R. G.  Hovannisian, ed., Remembrance and Denial. The Case of the

Armenian Genocide  (1998), 23-50.

Mark Levene,  "Creating a Modern 'Zone of Genocide': The Impact of Nation- and State-Formation on Eastern

Anatolia, 1878-1923," in Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 12/3 (1998): 393-433. Includes

the postwar Turkish massacres of Kurds in the story.

James Bryce and Arnold Toynbee, The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915-

1916. Documents Presented to Viscount Grey of Falloden by Viscount Bryce, (Reprint, 2000).

Turkish government's version of these events:  The URL for the website devoted to its response to charges

of genocide is constantly changing, but if you search google for "Turkey," you will get the Turkish

government's website, which  allows you to search via "Armenians." At last check it was at

http://www.turkey.org/p_armn00.htm

            Justin McCarthy, Death and Exile. The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821-1922

(Princeton, Darwin: 1995), ch.  6.  McCarthy is the most serious of the denialists.

Roger W. Smith, Eric Markisen, and Robert Jay Lifton, "Professional Ethics and the Denial of  the

Armenian Genocide," Holocaust and Genocide Studies 9/1 (Spring 1995): 1-22. Exposes scandal that Heath Lowry, working for a Turkish lobby, coached Turkish ambassador in campaign to deny the genocide and was rewarded with the newly endowed Ataturk Chair of Turkish History at Princeton.

Jörg Baberowski,  "Nationalismus aus dem Geist der Inferiorität. Autokratische Modernisierung und die Anfänge

muslimischer Selbstvergewisserung im östlichen Transkaukasien 1828-1914," Geschichte und Gesellschaft

26/3 (2000): 371-497. On the little-remembered Armeno-Azeri war of 1905-07 in the Russian Caucasus,

encouraged by the tsarist government.

Constantinople (Ecumenical patriarchate), Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey, 1914-1918 (Constantinople

[London, Printed by the Hesperia Press] 1919).               

VIII.  3/10       The Work of Minorities in Democratic Societies: The Jewish Dilemma

Reading:

Mark Levene, War, Jews, & the New Europe: the diplomacy of Lucien Wolf, 1914-1919 (1992) Xerox Master.

                346pp. 

Mark Levene, "Frontiers of Genocide: Jews in the Eastern War Zones, 1914-1920 and 1941,"  in Panikos

Panayi, ed., Minorities in Wartime. National and Racial Groupings in Europe, North America and

Australia during the Two World Wars (Oxford & Providence: Berg 1993), 83-117.  Handout.

Possible Follow-Ups:

G. R. Searle, "Wartime Xenophobia and Corruption," in Corruption in British Politics, 1895-1930 (1987),

241-270. Paranoia in Britain. For purposes of comparison

                Marsha L. Rozenblit, Reconstructing a national identity: the Jews of Habsburg Austria during World War I

                                (2001).

American Jewish Committee, The Jews in the eastern war zone (NY: American Jewish committee,

1916). Pamphlet. D639.J4 A5  Main Stack.

The Rev. S.B. Rohold,  The War and the Jew. A Bird's Eye View of the World's Situation and the Jews'

Place in It (MacMillian: Toronto, [1915] 19163). Pamphlet. MAIN D 639. J4R6.

Jonathan Frankel, ed., The Jews and the European crises, 1914-21 (Oxford UP: New York, 1988) 

DS101 .S773 v.4  Main Stack

Egmont Zechlin,  Die deutsche Politik und die Juden im Ersten Weltkrieg (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht:

Gottingen, 1969). D639.J4 Z4  Main Stack

Otto Armin (1879- ),  Die Juden im Heere: eine statistische Untersuchung nach amtlichen Quellen (Deutscher

Volks-Verlag: Munich, 1919). D639.J4 A75 1919  Main.

Donald M. McKale, War By Revolution. Germany and Great Britain in the Middle East in the Era of World

War I (1998)

IX.  3/17          Loyalty, Divisions, and Mutinies 

Reading:

Leonard Smith, Between Mutiny and Obedience. The Case of the French Fifth Infantry Division during World

War I (1994).  296pp.

James F. McMillan, "French Catholics, Rumeurs infâmes, and the Union Sacrée, 1914-1918, in F. Coetzee & M. Shevin-Coetzee, eds., Authority, Identity, and the Social History of the Great War (1995), 113-132.

                Xeroxed handout. 

Possible Follow-Ups:

David Englander, "The French Soldier, 1914-1918," French History I/1 (Mar. 1987): 49-67.

Ruth Harris, "The 'Child of the Barbarian': Rape, Race, and Nationalism in France during the First World

War," Past & Present 141 (1993): 170-206.

Mark Cornwall, "Morale and Patriotism in the Austro-Hungarian Army, 1914-1918," in John Horne, ed.,

State, society and mobilization in Europe during the First World War (Cambridge UP, 1997), 173-91

                Mark Cornwall, The Undermining of Austria Hungary. The Battle for Hearts and Minds ( 2000).

Benjamin Ziemann, Front und Heimat: Ländliche Kriegserfahrungen im südlichen

Bayern 1914-1923 (Essen, Klartext Verlag, 1997).

X.   3/24          Home Fronts: The United States

 Reading:

David M. Kennedy, Over Here. The First World War and American Society (1980). 428pp.

Possible Follow-Ups:

Arthur Marwick, The Deluge. British Society and the First World War (1965).

                Jean-Jacques Becker,  The Great War and the French People (Berg: Leamington Spa [1983], 1985).

                Gerald D. Feldman, Army, Industry, and Labor in Germany 1914-1918 (1966, re-issued in paper in 1991). His

                                dissertation, considered a classic.

Robert Kann, Béla Király, and Paula Fichtner, eds., The Habsburg Empire in World War I: Essays in the

Intellectual, Military, Political, and Economic Aspects of the Habsburg War Effort (New York:

Columbia University Press, 1977).

Maureen Healy, Vienna and the fall of the Habsburg Empire: total war and everyday life in World War I

(2004).

Béla Király and Nándor Dreisziger, eds., East Central European Society in World War I (Boulder: Social

Science Monographs, 1985).

N. N.Smirnov, ed., Rossiia i Pervaia Mirovaia Voina (1999). Articles by (mostly) Russians, Americans, and

Brits, on  "war and society," with short summary/introduction in English by William Rosenberg. Cf.

the informative and thoughtful review essay by Eric Lohr, in a not-too-long-ago issue of

Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, 196-203.

Hubertus Jahn, Patriotic Culture in Russia during World War I  (Cornell UP, 1995). Analysis of propaganda

Week of Mar. 27 - Mar. 31   SPRING BREAK

XI.   4/7           The Cultural Impact of the War: I 

Reading:

Paul Fussell, The Great War and Modern Memory (1977).  368pp.

Possible Follow-Ups:

Aviel Roshwald and Richard Stites, eds., European culture in the Great War: the arts entertainment, and

propaganda, 1914-1918  (Cambridge & New York: Cambridge UP, 1999).

                Jay W. Baird, "The Myth of Langemarck," in idem,  To Die for Germany. Heroes in the Nazi Pantheon

        (Indiana UP, 1990), 1-12.               

XII.   4/14       The Cultural Impact of the War: II

                Reading:

                Jay Winter, Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning: The Great War in European Cultural History (1995). 310p

                Possible Follow-Ups:

                Paul Lerner, "Rationalizing the Therapeutic Arsenal," in Manfred Berg and Geoffrey C. Cocks, eds.,

                                Ambiguities of Modernity. Medicine and Public Health in 19th and 20th Century Germany (1997).

Deborah Cohen, The War Come Home. Disabled Veterans in Britain and Germany, 1914-1939  (2001)

                Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male. Men's Bodies, Britain and the Great War (1996)

XIII.   4/21      The Peace Conference

                Reading: Margaret Olwen MacMillan, Paris 1919. Six Months that Changed the World  (2001, 2002) 574pp.

                                also published under: Peacemakers: The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 and Its Attempt to

                                End War (2002), 495 pp.

                Follow-up Possibilities:

                David Stevenson, The First World War & International Politics (Oxford University Press: 1988). Paperback.

John F. Pollard, The Unknown Pope: Benedict XV (1914-1922) and the Pursuit of Peace (1999).

A Belgian Roman Catholic, The "Neutrality" of the Pope condemned by Christian Doctrine (n.d. [probably

1917], no place). Pamphlet attacking Benedict XV.

                Philipp Scheidemann, Papst, Kaiser und Sozialdemokratie in ihren Friedensbemühungen im Sommer 1917

(Verlag für Sozialwissenschaft: Berlin, 1921). D 613. S 37

Arno J. Mayer, Wilson versus Lenin. Political Origins of the New Diplomacy 1917-1918 (1959).

                Arno J. Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy of Peacemaking. Containment and Counter-Revolution at Versailles

1918-1919 (1967). New Left account which usefully includes Eastern Europe.

Michael Howard, George J. Andreopoulos, and Mark R. Shulman, eds., The laws of war: constraints on

warfare in the Western world  (Yale University Press: New Haven: London, 1994).

C.A. Macartney, National States and National Minorities (1968). Results of end of Hapsburg Monarchy in

                the belt of mixed nationalities.

Aviel Roshwald, Ethnic Nationalism and the Fall of Empires. Central Europe, Russia & the Middle East,

1914-1923  (Routledge: London & New York, 2001)

Paul Kennedy, "The First World War and the International Power System," International Security 9/1

                                (Summer 1984): 7-40.

Hannah Arendt "The Decline of the Nation-State and the End of the Rights of Man," ch. 9 from idem, The

Origins of Totalitarianism (Harcourt, Brace & World: New York, [1951], 1966). 

XIV.  4/28       After the War               

Seth Koven, "Remembering and Dismemberment: Crippled Children, Wounded Soldiers, and the Great War

in Great Britain,"  AHR (Octo. 1994): 1167-1202. Xeroxed handout.

Wilfred Owen (1893-1918, d. age 25),  "Disabled." Xeroxed handout.

                In class film: Jean Renoir, Grand Illusion (1937).                                               

                Follow-up Possibilities:

                Abel Gance "J'Accuse" 2 versions: (Nov. 1918 [1919], and 1937).  Moffitt video library

                                999:2384 (107 min.) and 999:2109: length: 125 min.

                Akinjide Osuntokun, Nigeria in the First World War (Longman: London, 1979)

                Melvin E. Page, ed., Africa and the First World War (Macmillan: London, 1987).

                Melvin E. Page, The Chiwaya War. Malawians & the First World War (2000).