History 275B:

Problems and Topics in European History: Renaissance to the French Revolution

Fall 2003

Tuesday 2-4 pm

192 Barrows Hall
CCN: 39403

Professor Hesse (chesse@socrates.berkeley.edu)

Office: 3315 Dwinelle Hall (phone: 642-2992)

Office hours: Thursday 2-4 pm, or by appointment

Course description: This course will offer a general introduction to the major historical problems and historiographic trends in the study of Europe from the Renaissance to the French Revolution. We will examine research and debates concerning such issues as the periodization of ‘early modernity,’ the structures of everyday life, the concept and realities of the ‘Renaissance,’ religious reformations, empires and state formation, the general crisis of the seventeenth century, absolutism, constitutionalism, urbanization, colonialism, the rise of commerce, enlightenment and revolution. The course will be comparative in approach, including all areas of Europe from Russia to England in so far as the literature and time permits. It will also offer students exposure to a wide variety of methodological approaches, from demography to literary theory. Readings will include the following authors: Fernand Braudel, Jacob Burkhardt, Gene Brucker, John Bossy, Carlo Ginzburg, John Elliott, Geoffrey Parker, Natalie Z. Davis, Paul Avrich, Jan DeVries, Simon Schama, Alexis de Tocqueville, John Brewer, Anthony Pagden, Michel Foucault and François Furet.

Course requirements: Along with energetic and creative execution of all the required readings participants will give several seminar presentations, write two short papers and one longer final review essay.

Seminar and Reading Schedule:

Week 1: Introduction

Tuesday, August 26

* Those with no background in the field should read, Eugene Rice and Anthony Grafton, Foundations of Early Modern Europe (Norton, 2nd edition), entire.

Week 2: Structures and Conjunctures of Early Modernity

Tuesday, September 2

*Required reading:

- Fernand Braudel, The Structures of Everyday Life (entire)

* Document: “mystery” document to be distributed in class the week before

Suggestions for further reading:

- Lynn Hunt and Jacques Revel, eds., Histories: French Constructions of the Past (New York: The New Press, 1995)

- Randolph Starn, “What is Early Modernity?” in Starn, ed., Varieties of Cultural History (2001)

Week 3: The Problem of the Renaissance

Tuesday, September 9

*Required reading:

- Jacob Burkhardt, The Civilization of the Renaissance, Parts I and II.

- Gene Brucker, Renaissance Florence, Chapters 1-4.

- Anthony Grafton and Lisa Jardine, From Humanism to the Humanities, Chapters 1 & 2.

* Document: Petrarch, Ascent of Mont Ventoux

Suggestions for further reading:

- Lionell Gossman, Basel in the Age of Burkhardt

- William J. Bouwsma, “The Renaissance and the Drama of Western

History,” American Historical Review 84 (1979): 1-15.

- Paul Otto Kristeller, Renaissance Thought and Its Sources

- Ingrid Rowland, The Culture of the High Renaissance: Ancients and

Moderns on Sixteenth Century Rome

- Christiane Klapisch-Zuber, Tuscans and Their Families

- Joan Kelly, “Did Women have a Renaissance?” in Women, History and Theory

- Garret Mattingly, Renaissance Diplomacy

- Michael Baxendall, Painting and Experience in Fifteenth-Century Italy

- Gene Brucker, ed., Renaissance Society

-William Bouwsma, The Waning of the Renaissance

Week 4: World Encounters

Tuesday, September 16

*Required reading:

- John H. Elliott, The Old World and the New (entire)

- Anthony Pagden, New World Encounters from the Renaissance to Romanticism,

Intro. and chapter 1.

- Tzvetan Todorov, The Conquest of America  (1999), chapters 1 & 2

- Inge Clendinnen, “Cortés, Signs and the Conquest of Mexico,” in

Anthony Grafton and Ann Blair, eds., The Transmission of Culture in Early Modern Europe (1990).

- Pauline Watts, Prophecy and Discovery: On the Spiritual Origins of Christopher Columbus' "Enterprise of the Indies," American Historical Review (1985)

*Document: Cabeza de Vaca, The Account

Suggestions for further reading:

- John Elliott, Spain and Its World

- Fernand Braudel, The Perspective of the World

- Stephen Greenblatt, Marvelous Possessions

- Anthony Grafton, New Worlds, Ancient Texts

Week 5: The Reformations

Tuesday, September 23

* Required reading:

-Heinz Schilling, “The Confessionalization of Church, State, and Society:
The Shapes, Successes, Weaknesses, and Prospects
of a Historiographical Paradigm” (photocopy on reserve)

- Wolfgang Reinhard, “The Counterreformation as Modernization?

Prolegomena to a Theory of the Confessional Age” (photocopy on reserve)

- John Bossy, Christianity in the West (entire)

- Carlo Ginzburg, Night Battles (entire)

-Natalie Zemon Davis, “Strikes and Salvation,” and “Women on Top,”

in Society and Culture in Early Modern France

* Documents: Luther, Calvin and Trent (selections tba)

Suggestions for further reading:

- A. G. Dicken, et al, The Reformation in Historical Thought

- Thomas A. Brady, The Protestant Reformation in German history

- Heiko Augustinus Oberman, Luther: Man Between God and the Devil

- William James Bouwsma, John Calvin: A Sixteenth-Century Portrait

- Peter Blickle, The Revolution of 1525: The German Peasants Revolution

from a New Perspective

- Barbara Diefendorf, Beneath the Cross

- Thomas Dandelet, Spanish Rome

- William A. Christian, Jr., Local Religion in Sixteenth-Century Spain

- John O’Malley, Trent and All That

- LeRoy Ladurie, Lourdes

- Jean La Couture, The Jesuits, A Multi-biography

- Jonathan Spence, The Memory Palace of Matteo Ricci

- Jonathan Israel, European Jewry in the Age of Mercantilism

Week 6: The ‘General Crisis’

Tuesday, September 30

* Required reading:

- Geoffrey Parker, ed., The Thirty Years War (entire)

- Geoffrey Parker, et al, The General Crisis of the Seventeenth Century, chapters 1, 2 & 5

- John H. Elliott, Richelieu and Olivares (entire)

- H. Aston and C.H. Philipin, eds., The ‘Brenner Debate’, Intro. and chapters 1, 4, 5 & 10

* Document: The Political Testament of Cardinal de Richelieu (entire)

Suggestions for further reading:

- Randolph Starn, “Historians and Crisis,” Past and Present (1971)

-Theodore K. Rabb, The Search for Stability in Early Modern Europe

- Robert Forster and Jack Greene, eds., Preconditions of Revolution in

Early Modern Europe

- E.H. Kossman, La Fronde

- Thomas A. Brady, Turning Swiss

- John H. Elliott, The Revolt of the Catalans : a Study in the

Decline of Spain (1598-1640)

- Lawrence Stone, The Causes of the English Revolution

- Conrad Russell, The Crisis of Parliaments, 1640-1660

Week 7: Monarchies: Absolute and Not-So-Absolute

Tuesday, October 7

* Required reading:

- Alexis de Tocqueville, The Old Regime and the French Revolution (entire)

- Gerhard Ritter, Fredrick the Great (entire)

- Jon Brewer, Sinews of Power (entire)

- Raeff, Marc, “The Role of the Well-Ordered Police State in the

                 Development of Modernity in 17th and 18th

                 Century Europe,” American Historical Review 1975 80(5): 1221-1243.

* Documents: TBA

Suggestions for further reading:

- Paolo Prodi, The Papal Prince: One Body and Two Souls:

The Papal Monarchy in Early Modern Europe

- John Elliott, Imperial Spain

- R.J.W. Evans, The Making of the Hapsburg Monarchy, 1550-1700

- Hans Rosenberg, Bureaucracy, Aristocracy and Autocracy: the Prussian Experience

- Steven Pincus, The Revolution of 1688

- Pierre Goubert, Louis XIV and Twenty Million Frenchmen

-William Beik, Louis XIV and Absolutism

- Peter Sahlins, Boundaries

- Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish

- Marc Raeff, Imperial Russia, 1682-1825: The Coming of Age of Modern Russia

Week 8: Elites and Elite Culture

Tuesday, October 14

* Required reading:

- Simon Schama, The Embarrassment of Riches (selections).

- Norbert Elias, The Court Society, chapters 1, 5 & 6.

- Steven Shapin, The Scientific Revolution (entire)

*Documents: Manuscript of John Toland, Freemason (1670-1722)

 in Margaret Jacobs, The Radical Enlightenment (photocopy on reserve); “Letters and Memoranda to Colbert” and “”Academy of Sciences Statutes,” from Readings in Western Civilization, vol. 6 (Chicago) (photocopies on reserve)

Suggestions for further reading:

a. Culture:

- Elizabeth Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change

- Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

- Mario Biagioli, Galileo: Courtier

- Steven Shapin, The Social History of Truth

- Michel Foucault, The Order of Things

- Louis Marin, The Portrait of the King

- Orest Ranum, Paris in the Age of Absolutism

- Adrian Johns, The Nature of the Book

- Jean Delemeau, Catholicism: Between Luther and Voltaire

b. Society:

- Jonathan Dewald, Aristocratic Experience and the Origins of Modern Culture

- Chaussinard-Nogaret, The French Nobility in the Eighteenth Century

- Peter Borsay, The English Urban Renaissance: Culture and Society in

the Provincial Town, 1660-1770

- EP Thompson, Customs in Common

- Mack Walker, German Home Towns

- Lawrence Stone, The Crisis of the Aristocracy

- Lawrence Stone, An Open Elite?

- Nancy Kollmann, By Honor Bound: State and Society in Early Modern Russia

Week 9: Popular Classes and Cultures

Tuesday, October 21

* Required reading:

- Richard Wunderli, Peasant Fires: The Drummer of Niklashausen (entire)

- Paul Avrich, Russian Rebels (entire)

- Robert Darnton, “Peasants Tell Tales” and “The Great Cat Massacre,”

in The Great Cat Massacre

*Document: Restif de Bretonne, My Father’s Life (entire)

Suggestions for further reading:

- Leroy Ladurie, The Peasants of the Languedoc

- Eric Wolf, Europe and the People Without History

- Natalie Zemon Davis, The Return of Martin Guerre

- Christopher Hill, The World Turned Upside Down

- Peter Burke, Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe

- Keith Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic

- Robert Muchembled, Popular culture and elite culture in France, 1400-1750

- Mikhail Bahktin, Rabelais and his World

- David Sabean, Power in the Blood

- Daniel Roche, The People of Paris

-Arlette Farge and Jacques Revel, The Vanishing Children of Paris

Yves-Marie Bercé, History of Peasant Revolts

Week 10: Family, Sex and Marriage

Tuesday, October 28

* Required reading:

- Michael Flinn, The European Demographic System, 1500-1820 (entire)

- Lawrence Stone, The Family Sex and Marriage, Parts: III, IV and VI

- Thomas W. Laqueur, Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud (entire)

* Document: Mme de Lafayette, The Princess of Cleves (entire)

Suggestions for further reading:

- E. A. Wrigley, Population in History

- Jean Louis Flandrin, The Family in Former Times

- Lyndall Roper, The holy household : women and morals in Reformation Augsburg

- Isabel V. Hull, Sexuality, State and Civil Society in Germany, 1700-1815

- Lynn Hunt, The Family Romance of the French Revolution

- Olwen Hufton, The Prospect Before Her: A History of Women in

Western Europe: 1500-1800

- Natalie Zemon Davis, Women on the Margins

- Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, Volume 1

- Londa Schiebinger, The Mind has no Sex?

Week 11: Agrarian and Commercial Revolutions

Tuesday, November 4

* Required reading:

- Jan Devries, The Economy of Europe in an Age of Crisis (entire)

- Jan Devries, “The Industrial Revolution and the Industrious Revolution,”

Journal of Economic History 1994, 54(2): 249-270.

- E.P. Thompson, Customs in Common, chapter 1, 2, 4 & 6

- Jurgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Part I

* Document: Mandeville, Fable of the Bees (selections tba)

Suggestions for further reading:

- Fernand Braudel, The Wheels of Commerce

- Immanuel Wallerstein, The Modern World System I: Capitalist Agriculture

and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century

- Philip Curtin, Cross-Cultural Trade in World History

- Daniel Roche, A History of Everyday Things

- Jon Brewer, Pleasures of the Imagination

Week 12: The Enlightenment

Tuesday, November 11 (Veteran’s Day Holiday)

*Class time to be rescheduled

* Required reading:

- Ernst Cassirer, The Philosophy of Enlightenment, Preface and chapters 1-4.

- Robert Darnton, “The High Enlightenment and the Low-Life of Literature,”

in The Literary Underground of the Old Regime

- Robert Darnton, “Philosophers Trim the Tree of Knowledge,” in The Great

            Cat Massacre

- Yuri Slezkine, “Naturalists Versus Nations: Eighteenth-Century Russian

Scholars Confront Ethnic Diversity,” Representations 1994 (47): 170-195.

- * Documents: Immanuel Kant, “What is Enlightenment?” and Michel Foucault,

 “What is Enlightenment?”

Suggestions for further reading:

- Peter Gay, The Enlightenment: The Rise of Modern Paganism

- Paul Hazard, The Crisis of European Consciousness

- Jean Starobinski, Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Transparency and Obstruction

- Darrin McMahon, Enemies of  Enlightenment

- Keith Michael Baker, Inventing the French Revolution

- Margaret Jacobs, The Radical Enlightenment

- Jonathan Israel, The Radical Enlightenment

- Carla Hesse, The Other Enlightenment: How French Women Became Modern

Week 13: The French Revolution

Tuesday, November 18

* Required reading:

- Francois Furet, Interpreting the French Revolution, Part 1

- Timothy Tackett, When the King took Flight (entire)

- Keith Michael Baker, “Transformations of Classical Republicanism in

Eighteenth-Century France, Journal of Modern History, 2001, 73(1): 32-53.

- Carla Hesse, “Revolutionary Historiography after the Cold War:

Arno Mayer’s “Furies” in the French Context,” Journal of Modern History, 2001, 73 (4): 897-907.

* Documents: “What is the Third Estate?”, “The Declaration of the

Rights of Man, 1789,” and Robespierre, “On Political Morality”

Suggestions for further reading:

* A good short narrative: Colin Jones, The French Revolution

- Georges Lefebvre, The Coming of the French Revolution

- William Doyle, The Origins of the French Revolution

- Mona Ozouf, The Festivals of the French Revolution

- Roger Chartier, The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution

- François Furet and Mona Ozouf, eds., Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution

- Keith Michael Baker, ed., The Political Culture of the French Revolution, 4 vols.

- Lynn Hunt, Politics, Culture and Class in the French Revolution

- David Bell, The Cult of the Nation in France

- Isser Woloch, The New Regime

- Ferenc Feher, ed., The French Revolution and Modernity

- Franco Venturi, The End of the Old Regime in Europe

Week 14: No Class Meeting

Tuesday November 25

  • Independent Study for Final Paper

Week 15: No Class Meeting

Tuesday, December 2

  • Independent Study for Final Paper


Final paper due: Friday, December 19, 2003

History 275B: Problems and Topics in European History: Renaissance to the French Revolution