Hesse/History280B

 

History 280B.005
Wed. 10:00-12:00, 2231 Dwinelle

Problems and Topics in Revolutionary France:
1770-1848

Professor Hesse
chesse@berkeley.edu
Office hours: Thurs. 2-4, 3315 Dwinelle

Course Description:

Traditionally, the French Revolution has been studied as the last chapter in the history of the "Old Regime." Since 1989 all this has changed. Revisionist historiography has given shape to a new unit of French history, "revolutionary France," spanning roughly from the Enlightenment through the Revolution of 1848. The purpose of this course is to give students an opportunity to develop foundational knowledge of this most turbulent of periods in French history. It will introduce participants to the major areas of research in this field--political history, social history, economic history, military history, race and colonialism, women's history, the history of religion and, not least, intellectual and cultural history. The aim is to achieve a solid understanding of the causes, course and consequences of the Revolution of 1789-99 and the successive regimes that followed: the Napoleonic empire, the Bourbon Restoration, and the Revolutions of 1830 and 1848. Not least, students will have an opportunity to engage with the major traditions of interpretation of the revolutionary era, both classical and contemporary. Reading knowledge of French is preferred, but not required.

Course Requirements:
The emphasis of this course is on reading. However, along with energetic reading and discussion, participants will be required to give two seminar presentations and to write two short (3-5 page) papers and one longer (15-20 page) final paper. 285 option negotiable.


Reading and Seminar Schedule:

Week I Introduction: A Bird’s Eye View and a Close-Up
Reading:

  • Those who need an introduction to the history of this period should read François Furet, Revolutionary France, 1770-1880, available in paperback from Blackwell.
  • * Mystery document (to be distributed in class).

Some suggestions for further reading:

  • Colin Jones, The Great Nation: France From Louis XV to Napoleon (Columbia U Press, 1983).
  • Norman Hampson, A Social History of the French Revolution
  • Georges Lefebvre, The French Revolution (2 vols).
  • Lynn Hunt, Politics Politics, Culture and Class in the French Revolution

Week II Social and Political Origins
Reading:

  • * Tocqueville, Old Regime and the French Revolution (entire)
  • * Michael Kwass, Privilege and the Politics of Taxation in 18th Century France (Into & Chs 1, 5, 6 & Conclusion) (150 pgs)
  • * Daniel Roche, France in the Enlightenment (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998) (Chs. 7-8), pp. 251-286.
  • * William Doyle, “The Parlements,” in Keith Michael Baker, ed., The French Revolution and the Creation of Modern Political Culture, vol. 1: The Political Culture of the Old Regime (Oxford, New York: Pergamon Press, 1987), pp. 157-167.

Some suggestions for further reading:

  • Alfred Cobban, The Social Origins of the French Revolution
  • George V. Taylor, “Non-Capitalist Wealth and the Origins of the French Revolution,” AHR (1967)
  • Daniel Gordon, Citizens Without Sovereignty

Week III Cultural and Intellectual Origins
Reading:

  • * Robert Darnton, “The High Enlightenment and the Low-Life on Literature,” in Darnton, The Literary Underground of the Old Regime (Cambridge MA: Harvard, 1982), pp. 1-40.
  • * Roger Chartier, The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution (Durham: Duke University Press, 1991), Intro and chs. 1, 6-8 & Conclusion), pp. 1-19 & 92-198.
  • * Keith Michael Baker, Inventing the French Revolution (Cambridge University Press, 1990), chs. 1, 9 &10; pp. 12-27 & 203-251.
  • * Dale Van Kley, The Religious Origins of the French Revolution: From Calvin to the French Revolution, 1560-1791 (New Haven: Yale U Press) ch. 6 & conclusion, pp. 303-375
  • * John McManners, French Ecclesiastical Society under the Ancien Regime, A Study of Angers in the Eighteenth Century (Manchester: Manchester University Press), chs.  1, 2 &7, pp. 1-25 & 129-162.

Some suggestions for further reading:

  • H.T. Mason, The Darnton Debate (Oxford: The Voltaire Foundation: 1999).
  • Daniel Mornet, Les Origines Intellectuelles de la Révolution française
  • Sarah Maza, Private Lives, Public Affairs
  • Robert Darnton, The Great Cat Massacre
  • Dena Goodman, The Republic of Letters
  • Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere

Week IV The Pre-Revolutionary Crisis
Reading:

  • * William Doyle, The Origins of the French Revolution (Oxford: 1980), Intro.& Part I, pp. 1-40.
  • Colin Lucas, “Nobles, Bourgeois and the Origins of the French Revolution,” in Douglas Johnson, ed., French Revolution and Society (Cambridge: 1976), pp. 88-
  • P. M. Jones,  “The Crisis of the Late Ancien Regime,” in, Jones, The Peasantry in the French Revolution (Cambridge U Press, 1988), ch. 2, pp. 30-60.
  • * Georges Lefebvre, The Coming of the French Revolution (entire)
  • * Documents: Sieyès, “What is the Third Estate?” and “Regulations for the Convocation of the Estates General” in the Baker, Old Regime and French Revolution documents collection.

Some suggestions for further reading:

  • Jean Egret, The French Pre-Revolution
  • William Doyle, “Was there an Aristocratic Reaction in Pre-revolutionary France?” in Douglas Johnson, ed., French Revolution and Society (Cambridge: 1976), pp. 3-28.
  • Douglas Dakin, “The Breakdown of the Old Regime,” in A. Goodwin, ed., The New Cambridge Modern History, vol. 8 (Cambridge U Press), 1968), pp. 592-617.
  • David Bell, “Lawyers into Demagogues: Chancellor Maupeou and the Transformation of Legal Practice in France, 1771-1789,” Past and Present 130 (Feb. 1991), pp. 107-141.

Week V The Revolutions of 1789-1790
Reading:

  • * Timothy Tackett, “Nobles and the Third Estate in the Revolutionary Dynamic of the National Assembly, 1789-1790,” American Historical Review, 94: 2 (April 1989), pp. 301.
  • Rolf Reichardt and Hans Lusebrinck, The Bastille (Duke: 1997), chs. 1-2, pp. 1-78.
  • Lynn Hunt, “National Assembly,” in Keith Michael Baker, ed., The French Revolution and the Creation of Modern Political Culture, vol. 2 (Oxford, New York: Pergamon Press, 1987).
  • P. M. Jones,  “1789: Between Hope and Fear,” in, Jones, The Peasantry in the French Revolution (Cambridge U Press, 1988), ch. 3, pp. 60-85.
  • * Document: The ‘August Decrees’ and The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, in Baker collection.

Some suggestions for further reading:

  • Jean Starobinski, 1789: The Emblems of Reason
  • Marcel Gauchet, La Révolution des Droits de l’Homme
  • Georges Lefebvre, The Great Fear

Week VI Constitutional Monarchy, 1791-92
Reading:

  • Timothy Tackett, When the King Took Flight (Cambridge: Harvard, 2003), entire
  • * Keith Michael Baker, Inventing the French Revolution (Cambridge University Press, 1990), ch. 11; pp. 252-305.
  • Ted Margadant, Urban Rivalries in the French Revolution (Princeton: 1992), chs. 1-2, 6-7 & conclusion, pp. 21-110, 220-286 & 442-456.
  • Documents: The Constitution of 1791, the ‘Debates on the King’s Trial’

Some suggestions for further reading:

  • Keith Michael Baker, “Transformations of Classical Republicanism in Eighteenth Century France,” Journal of Modern History (2001), pp. 32-53.
  • Keith Michael Baker, “The Political Languages of the French Revolution,” in Mark Goldie and Robert Wolker, eds, The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Political Thought (Cambridge: 2006).

Week VII Popular Revolutions
Reading:

  • P. M. Jones,  “Dismantling the Seigneurial Regime,” and “The Land Settlement,” in, Jones, The Peasantry in the French Revolution (Cambridge U Press, 1988), chs. 4 & 5, pp. 87-166.
  • “The Causes of the Revolt in the Vendée of 1793,” in Frank A. Kafker, James M. Laux and Darlene Gay Levy, eds, The French Revolution: Conflicting Interpretations (5th ed. 2002), ch. 5, pp. 155-85.
  • John Markoff, The Abolition of Feudalism: Peasants, Lords and Legislators in the French Revolution (Penn State Press, 1996), ch. 8, pp. 427-516.
  • * Albert Soboul, The Sans-Culottes (entire).
  • * Colin Lucas, “The Crowd and Politics between Ancien Regime and Revolution in France,” Keith Michael Baker, ed., The French Revolution and the Creation of Modern Political Culture, vol. 1: The Political Culture of the Old Regime (Oxford, New York: Pergamon Press, 1987).
  • Brian Singer, “Violence in the French Revolution: Forms of Ingestion/Forms of Expulsion,” in Ferenc Feher, ed., The French Revolution and the Birth of Modernity (Berkeley: 1990), pp. 150-173.
  • Document: “What is a Sans-Culotte?” in Baker documents

Some suggestions for further reading:

  • Hilton Root, “The Rural Community and the French Revolution,” in Keith Michael Baker, ed., The French Revolution and the Creation of Modern Political Culture, vol. 1: The Political Culture of the Old Regime (Oxford, New York: Pergamon Press, 1987), pp. 141-153.
  • Charles Tilly, The Vendée.
  • John Markoff, The Abolition of Feudalism: Peasants, Lords and Legislators in the French Revolution (Penn State Press, 1996).
  • Reynald Secher, Le Génocide franco-français: La Vendée-vengée (Paris: 1986)
  • Jacques Godechot, The Counter Revolution
  • Suzanne Desan, Reclaiming the Sacred: Lay Religion and Popular Politics in Revolutionary France (Cornell: 1990).
  • Marc A. Goldstein, The People in French Counterrevolutionary Thought (Peter Land: 1988).

Week VIII War, Terror and Republic, 1792-1794
Reading:

  • * Robert R. Palmer, The Twelve Who Ruled (Robespierre and Carnot)
  • * Alison Patrick, The Men of the First French Republic; Political Alignments in the National Convention of 1792 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1972) (chs. 1-4, 6-7 and Conclusion).
  • * Richard Cobb, The People’s Armies (Yale: 1987), Pt I: ch. 3 & Pt. II: ch. 3, pp. 102-158 &313-372.
  • * Carla Hesse, “Tribunals” (in manuscript)
  • François Furet, “Terror” and Denis Richet, “Revolutionary Government,” in François Furet and Mona Ozouf, eds, Criticial Dictionary of the French Revolution (Harvard: 1989)
  • Documents: ‘Law on Suspects’,’ Frimaire Laws, Ventôse Laws, Prairial Laws, in Baker documents.

Some suggestions for further reading:

  • Colin Lucas, The Structure of the Terror (chs. 1-2, 4-6, 9-12 and Conclusion).
  • Françoise Brunel et Sylvain Goujon, Les Martyrs de Prairial
  • Jean-Pierre Gros, Fair Shares for all: Jacobin Egalitarianism in Practice (Cambridge: 1997)
  • Patrice Higonnet, Goodness beyond Virtue: Jacobins during the French Revolution (Harvard: 1998).
  • Pierre Serna, Antonelle (Paris: 1998).
  • Donald Greer, Incidence of the Terror During the French Revolution: A Statistical Interpretation (Cambridge: 1935)
  • Donald Greer, Incidence of the Emigration During the French Revolution: A Statistical Interpretation (Cambridge: 1935)
  • Arno Mayer, The Furies (2000)
  • Patrice Gueniffey, La Politique de la Terreur (2000)
  • Gary Kates, The Cercle Social, the Girondins and the French Revolution (Princeton: 1985).
  • Albert Matiez, Girondin et Montagnard (Paris: 1930)
  • J.M. Thompson, Robespierre (2 vols.)
  • M.J. Sydenham, The Girondins (London: 1961)
  • Michael L. Kennedy, The Jacobin Clubs in the French Revolution (Princeton: 1983-)
  • Crane Brinton, The Jacobins

Week IX Women: Inclusion/Exclusion
Reading:

  • Joan Scott, “The Uses of Imagination: Olympe de Gouges in the French Revolution of 1789,” in, Joan Wallach Scott, Only Paradoxes to Offer (Harvard: 1996), pp. 19-56
  • Lynn Hunt, The Family Romance of the French Revolution (Berkeley: 1996)
  • * Carla Hesse, “Enlightened French Women of Letters in European Context,” (in manuscript)
  • Suzanne Desan, The Family on Trial in Revolutionary France (UC Press, 2004) (selections).
  • Olwen Hufton, “Women in the French Revolution,” Past and Present 53 (1971).
  • Document: De Gouges, Declaration of the Rights of Women, in Baker documents.

Some suggestions for further reading:

  • Joan Landes, Visualizing the Nation: Gender, Representation and Revolution in 18th Century France (Cornell: 2001)
  • Margaret Cohen, The Sentimental Education of the Novel (Princeton:1999).
  • Dominique Godineau, The Women of Paris and Their French Revolution (Berkeley: 1998).
  • Joan Landes, Women in the Public Sphere in the Age of Enlightenment
  • Geneviève Fraisse, Reason’s Muse: Sexual Difference and the Birth of Democracy (Chicago: 1994).
  • Darlene Gay Levy, et. al., Women in Revolutionary Paris (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1979).
  • Claire Moses, French Feminism in the Nineteenth Century (New York: 1984)

Week X Religion and Cultural Revolution
Reading:

  • Darrin McMahon, Enemies of Enlightenment
  • Mona Ozouf, Festivals of the French Revolution
  • * Carla Hesse, “Reading in Extremis: Revolutionaries Respond to Rousseau” (in manuscript)
  • Paul Friedland, Political Actors: Representative Bodies and Theatricality in the Age of the French Revolution (Cornell: 2002), Prologue, ch. 5 & conclusion, pp. 17-28, 167-96 & 295-300.
  • John McManners, The French Revolution and the Church (Harper: 1969)
  • Documents: ‘Civil Constitution of the Clergy,’ Robespierre, ‘On Political Morality,’ Robespierre, ‘Festival of the Supreme Being’

Some suggestions for further reading:

  • Suzanne Desan, Reclaiming the Sacred: Lay Religion and Popular Politics in Revolutionary France (Cornell: 1990).
  • Marc A. Goldstein, The People in French Counterrevolutionary Thought (Peter Land: 1988).
  • Michel de Certeau, et. al., Une Politique de la langue
  • Jean Starobinski, 1789: The Emblems of Reason
  • Serge Bianchi, La Révolution culturelle de l’an II
  • James Johnson, Listening in Paris
  • Michel Vovelle, La mentalité révolutionnaire
  • Antoine de Baecque, The Body Politic
  • Antoine de Baecque et Françoise Mélonio, Histoire culturelle de la France, vol. 3
  • Jean-Claude Bonnet, La Carmagnole des Muses
  • Thomas Crow, Painters and Public Life
  • Robert Darnton and Daniel Roche, eds., Revolution in Print

Week XI The Problem of Thermidor, 1795-1799
Reading:

  • * Bronislav Baczko, Ending the Terror (entire).
  • * James Livesey, Making Democracy in the French Revolution (Harvard 2001), Intro, chs. 1-3 & Conclusion.
  • Howard Brown, Ending the French Revolution: Violence Justice and Repression from the Terror to Napoleon (Charlottesville: U VA Press, 2006) Intro & chs. 1-4, pp. 1-119.
  • Andrew Jainchill, “The Constitution of the Year III and the Persistence of Classical Republicanism,” French Historical Studies 26, no. 3 (Summer 2003): 399-435.
  • Documents: The Constitutions of 1793 and 1795

Some suggestions for further reading:

  • Isser Woloch, The Jacobin Legacy (Princeton: 1970)
  • Sergio Luzzatto, Mémoires de la Terreur
  • Philippe Buonarroti, Conspiration de l’égalité dite de Babeuf (Paris: 1957)
  • François Gendron, The Gilded Youth of Thermidor (McGill: 1993).
  • David Thomson, The Babeuf Plot.
  • Martyn Lyons, France Under the Directory.

Week XII The Napoleonic Experiment, 1799-1814
Reading:

  • Louis Bergeron, France Under Napoleon (entire)
  • Isser Woloch, Napoleon and his Collaborator the Making of a Dictatorship ((Norton: 2001), chs. 1-5, pp. 1-155
  • Bell, The First Total War: Napoleon’s Europe and the Birth of War as We Know It  (Houghton Mifflin, 2007), chs. 6-8 & conclusion, pp. 187-316
  • Darcy Grimaldo Grigsby, Extremities: Painting Empire in Post Revolutionary France (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), Intro. And ch. 2, pp. 1-7 & 65-103.

Some suggestions for further reading:

  • Steven Englund, Napoleon: A Political Life (NY: Scribner, 2004)
  • Peter Geyl, Napoleon: For and Against
  • Georges Lefebvre, Napoleon (2 vols.).
  • José Cabanis, Le Sacré de Napoléon (Paris: 1970)
  • Jacques Godechot, L’Europe et l’Amérique à l’époque napoléonienne (Paris: 1967)
  • Jakob Walter, The Diary of a Napoleonic Foot Soldier (Penguin: 1991)
  • Harold T. Parker, Three Napoleonic Battles (Duke: 1983)

Week XIII The Race Question and Colonial Reverberations

Reading

  • Laurent Dubois, Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution (Harvard: 2004) (entire).
  • David Geggus, “Racial Equality, Slavery and Colonial Succession during the Constituent Assembly,” AHR, 94:5 (December 1989): 1290-1308.
  • Document: Viefville des Essars, On the Emancipation of Negroes,” in Baker documents.

Some suggestions for further reading:

  • C.L.R. James, The Black Jacobins
  • Robert Harms, The Diligent
  • Emmanuel Chukwudi Eze, ed., Race and the Enlightenment: A Reader
  • Lynn Hunt, The French Revolution and Human Rights; A Brief Documentary History (Boston: Bedford Books, 1996)
  • Londa Schiebinger, Nature’s Body
  • Richard Popkin, “The Philosophical Basis of Eighteenth-Century Racism,” in Harold E. Pagliano, ed., Racism in Eighteenth Century Culture, vol. 3.
  • Valerie Quinney, “The Problem of Civil Rights of Free Men of Color in the Early French Revolution,” in Harold E. Pagliano, ed., Racism in Eighteenth Century Culture, vol. 3.
  • David Geggus, Slavery, War and Revolution
  • Howard Holman Bell, Black Separatism and the Caribbean
  • David Geggus, The Impact of the Haitian Revolution in the Atlantic World (2001)

Week XIV Socio-Political Legacies
Reading:

  • Isser Woloch, The New Regime: Transformations of the French Civic Order, 1789-1820s (Norton: 1994), Preface, chs. 1-3 & Reflections, pp. 13-113 & 427-433.
  • * Sheryl Kroen, Politics and Theater: The Crisis of Legitimacy in Restoration France, 1815-1830 (Berkeley: UC Press, 2000), Intro. & chs. 1 & 4, pp. 1-39 & 161-201.
  • Pierre Rosanvallon, “ François Guizot and the Sovereignty of Reason” and “Political Rationalism and Democracy in France) in, Rosanvallon, Democracy, Past and Future, Samuel Moyn, ed. (NY: Columbia U Press, 2006), ch. 5 & 6, pp. 117-146.
  • Documents: Selections from Joseph De Maistre, “Considerations on France,” and Benjamin Constant, “Ancient and Modern Liberty Compared,” in Baker document collection

Some suggestions for further reading:

  • Bertier de Sauvigny, The Restoration
  • D. P. Resnick, The White Terror and the Political Reaction after Waterloo (Cambridge: 1966)
  • David Pinkney, The French Revolution of 1830 (Princeton: 1972)
  • Maurice Aghulon, The Republican Experiment, 1848-1852 (Cambridge: 1983)
  • William Sewell, Work and Revolution in France.
  • Mark Traugott, Armies of the Poor (Berkeley: 1981).
  • John M. Merriman, The Agony of the Republic: Repression of the Left in Revolutionary France, 1848-1851 (New Haven: 1978)
  • Peter H. Amann, Revolution and Mass Democracy; The Paris Club Movement in 1848 (1975).
  • Ted Margadant, French Peasants in Revolt: The Insurrection of 1851 (Princeton: 1979).

Week XV Cultural and Intellectual Legacies
Reading:

  • Steven B. Smith, “Hegel and the French Revolution: An Epitaph for Republicanism,” in, The French Revolution and the Birth of Modernity, Ferenc Fehér, ed. (Berkeley: UC Press, 1990), pp. 219-239
  • Ferenc Fehér, “Practical Reason in the Revolution: Kant’s Dialogue with the French Revolution,” in The French Revolution and the Birth of Modernity, Ferenc Fehér, ed. (Berkeley: UC Press, 1990), pp. 201-218.
  • Document: Karl Marx, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (entire).

Some suggestions for further reading:

  • Steve Laurence Kaplan, Farewell, Revolution (Cornell: 1995)
  • George C. Comninel, Rethinking the French Revolution: Marxism and the Revisionist Challenge
  • François Furet, Marx and the French Revolution
  • Jack Censer, ed., The French Revolution and Intellectual History
  • Lynn Hunt, “Forgetting and Remembering: the French Revolution then and now (American historical study of the Revolution in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and present perspective),” AHR, 100:4 (October 1995): 1119.

SPECIAL EVENING SESSION: THE MEANING OF IT ALL

Reading:

  • Hannah Arendt, On Revolution, Intro & ch. 1, pp. 11-58.
  • * Albert Soboul, “The French Revolution and the Modern World,” in, Albert Soboul, The French Revolution, 1787-1799, Alan Forrest and Colin Jones, trans. (London: Unwin Hyman, 1974).
  • * François Furet, Interpreting the French Revolution (Cambridge: 1981), Pt I: “The Revolution is Over,” pp. 1-81.

* Colin Jones, “Bourgeois Revolution Revivified: 1789 and Social Change,” in Colin Lucas, ed., Rewriting the French Revolution (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991).