Lecture 2:

Lecture Outline: European Peoples

I. Some Basic Dimensions of Europe a. Size: Eastern 1/3 of USA b. Population: 1500 =

@ 65 million c. Political geography: dynasties not territorial States d. No linguistic unity

among or within dynastic kingdoms

II. Rural life a. A peasant society (80% of pop); few cities b. The peasant eco-system:

house+garden; fields; woods c. Rural institutions: the village, the manor, the church d.

Small commercial farms in West; Feudal estates in East e. Oral versus written world f.

Europe = agglomeration of villages and towns g. Isolation > local or regional versus

national identity

III. Demographic Change a. Population recover and expansion at end of 15th c. b. "Price revolution" c. Social consequences: Neo-Feudalism in East; Enclosure in West > small peasants forced off the land > urbanization

IV. Urban Renaissance a. Growth of cities b. New cities: centers of production vs

consumption, worship or royal administration c. Revolution in urban government > From

Feudal lords to Guild Manufacturers d. Rise of trade and industry; the emergence of

banking > e. The Shift of Trade from South/Mediterranean to North/Atlantic e. New

divisions of labor: The eclipse of the Craft Manufacturer by the Capitalist-Merchant and


V. Conclusions a. By 1500 medieval social order bursting at its seams; decline of b.

Commercialization of rural agriculture; end of feudalism in West; neo-Feudalism in the

East c. Urban renaissance > expansion of industry and trade d. Guild manufacture eclipsed by capitalist and wage-worker e. Demographic and economic developments create preconditions for the rise of new monarchies and age of global exploration


Lecture 3

Lecture Outline: Renaissance Statemaking and its Legacy

I. Medieval Polities: The Unity of Christendom a. The notion of the "body politic" b.

Static hierarchy of a great chain of being: Church as head and kings as arms c. Synthesis

of Aristolean cosmology (natural law) and biblical teaching (divine law) d. Key theorists:

John of Salisbury and Thomas Aquinas e. Most succinct statement: the Papal Bull, Unam

Sanctum (1302)

II. The Italian Origins of the Modern State a. Illegitimacy of Italian polities in 13th

century b. The Age of Tower Wars: Family feuds, civic strife, expansionism (tower of

Pisa) c. The new statecraft: rational tax collecting, standing armies, permanent civil

servants, the art of diplomacy (Holbein's ambassadors) d. The consolidation of the 5 states and the non-aggression pact (Treaty of Lodi, 1454)

III. Machiavelli (1469-1527) a. Humanist training as a Florentine civil servant b. An early career in Italian politics (1498-1512) c. Exile and a second career in letters d. The Prince(1512): a new theory of politics e. Key themes: State power as an end in itself; amorality of politics; virtù (prowess) vs fortuna (fate); a history world that is unpredictable vs the medieval idea of a world ordered by divine law; fortune is a woman. f. Reception of the Prince: immediate, widespread, and denounced by the Church as a work of the Devil

IV. The New Monarchies a. The military revolution b. The 15th c. territorial

consolidation of Spanish (Hapsburg), French (Valois) and English (Tudor) kingdoms c.

the descent of the Valois and the Hapsburgs into Italy d. The new politics moves north e.

The Hapsburgs: The last 'first princes of Christendom'; the expulsion of the Moors and

Jews (1492); The Empire of Charles V (1519-1556) f. Hapsburg rivals: the French Valois:

Charles VIII; Louis XII and François I (1515-1547); the English Tudors: Henry VIII

(1509-47); the Ottomans: Sulieman the Magnificent (1520-1566) g. The last stand of the

Hapsburgs: Philip II (1556-98) (the Escorial palace) g. the revolt in the Netherlands

(1607), the French Protestants; the Ottomans (battle of Le Panto, 1571); and the Armada

and Elizabeth I (1588)

V. Conclusions a. Decline of the Spanish Hapsburgs ended the medieval dream of Europe as a "unified" and "purified" christendom b. Defeat of the Armada signaled the definitive triumph of the secular sovereign state over feudal rivalries within and the power of the papacy c. It also represented the decisive shift of economic and political life northward and from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic d. The international rivalries of the 16th century would also be played out, not just on a continent, but on a global scale as well.


Lecture 4

Lecture Outline: Voyagers and Others

Introduction: Convergence of interests of merchants and interests of the Princes. a. War

becomes more capital intensive b. States become more bureaucratic c. Monarchs become

increasingly interested in wealth of the kingdom d. New policy: Mercantilism; enhancing

the wealth of the kingdom through protectionism and monopolies e. Trading companies

and enterprises

I. Focus of the expansion of trade in the Mediterranean: a. Mediterranean trade >

Africa and Far East b. Expansion of the Ottomans > 1453-1529 fall of Constantinople to

the gates of Vienna > control of 3/4 of mediterranean coast-line.

II. The Portuguese challenge: a. Africa: Henry the Navigator: 1460-80 Gold, Sugar,

Slaves b. From Africa to India: Bartholomew Dias: 1487, Cape of Good Hope, Indian

Spices; Vasco de Gama: 1498, Malabara Coast c. South East and Far East: Malacca, 1511, South East Asia

III. The Spanish initiative: a. The encounter with an unknown continent: Columbus,

1492. b. Spain and Portugal "divide the world": Torsedilla, 1494 b. Cortés and Pizarro; fall of the Aztecs and Incas (1532-35) c. Conquest to colonization: Mining in Zacatecas

(Mexico) and Potosi (Bolivia, pop. 120,000)

IV. The Consequences of the Encounter for the Americas: a. Demographic

catastrophe: pop. 1500 = 65 mill.; 1900 = 300,000; today = 2 mill. b. Enslavement, forced

labor and industrialization c. Cultural genocide: christianization d. Political legacy of

military authoritarianism

V. The Consequences of the Encounter in Europe: a. Economic: boom and century of

Spanish dominance b. Politically: protectionism + rivalry = rise of nationalism c.

Otherness and a mode of reaffirmation (Sepulveda) d. Otherness as questioning and

assimilation (Las Casas) e. Otherness as critique (Las Casas)

VI. Conclusions: a. Europe becomes first global power in world history b. Shorter term:

'Golden Age' of Spanish inquisition c. The Space of "the Other" opens up an arena of

imaginative dissent within European culture: 1) identification with the cause of the

Indians; 2) Critique of a Universal church; 3) new world represents freedom from

repressive authorities, religious and, ultimately, political.


Lecture 5

Elite and Popular Cultures

Introduction: Shift of attention from material and political circumstances to mental life.

How did people order and make sense of their worlds?

I. Rural Popular Culture: a. Peasant cosmology: In the middle ages Christian doctrine

grafted onto pagan beliefs and rites. b. A world divided between the natural and the

spiritual, the earth and the heavens, disorder and order. Everything on earth animated by

spirits that lie beyond or within it. c. Time and calendar: the agrarian vs the liturgical

calendar: enchanted vs natural parts of the year. The enchanted time: from Advent to the

Feast of John the Baptist (Midsummer's Day): cycle of festivals tracing the lives of Christ

and Mary d. Carnival and Lent: the world turned upside down e. Charivari: popular rituals for the enforcement of social norms f. Changes in the countryside: increase in mobility; advent of printing; reformation; all increase literacy. The architecture of the heavens is reformed: masculinization of the Holy Family. g. Popular literacy leads to hybrid forms of learned and popular culture, eg., Cheese and the Worms

II. Elite Culture: a. New monarchs, new courts: from peripatetic to fixed; value

eloquence over valor; emergence of a new social type, the courtier replaces the knight:

Castiglione's The Courtier (1516) b. New education for a new state: explosion in

University attendance (1560-1640); new curriculum, no longer producing churchmen, but

gentlemen: stress on prowess of mind and body; classical and modern languages; moral

history, grammar and rhetoric. (ex. Gargantua's Letter to His Son); new education

produces new generation, most well-educated elite ever. c. New cultural forms: 1)

Flowering of vernacular (vs Latin) literatures 2) Elizabethan theater (Shakespeare, 1546-

1616); 3) Court of François 1er: Fontainebleau; the royal library; new Universities;

patronage of arts and letters 4) The Pléiade (Ronsard and Du Bellay), and the sonnet

form (1530-50); The novella: Marguerite of Navarre's Heptameron (1556) > rewrites

Boccaccio's Decamerom, with a new aim: tales of seduction become tales of moral

exemplum of chastity. Fusion of Christianity and humanism into a new literature of lay

piety; precursors of modern novel.

III. Literary Culture Beyond the Court: a. Urban renaissance + Printing + Reformatio = New independent lay literacy > Middle Class literary life in urban salons c. The French

City of Lyon one of greatest centers of printing. d. The literary career of the daughter of a

wealthy rope-maker: Louise Labé (1526-66); authoress of Petrarchian sonnets,

denounced by Churchmen as sinful.


Lecture 6

New Religions

Introduction: Shift of focus from the secular circumstances of Europeans to changes in

their spiritual lives and self-understanding.

I. Luther's Reform a. Martin Luther (1483-1546) son of a wealthy peasant, trained as a

lawyer, and in 1505 becomes an Augustinian monk b. 1513, rereads St. Paul: “Only those

who have faith will be saved”: sola fide, sola scritpura, sola gratia c. October 31, 1517,

95 theses against Indulgences > a hero

II. Preconditions for Luther's Reform movement a. Renaissance humanism: Erasmus

(1469-1536) & Thomas More (1478-1535), historical and textual assessment of Greek

and Latin bibles; textual problems: GODISNOWHERE; they create a new movement:

Christian humanism b. The decline of the Universal church: relics, paid masses,

indulgences; increase in lay piety, lay dissatisfaction c. The advent of print: makes

possible the first mass political propaganda against the papacy; reaches all levels of


III. The Spread of Reform: a. Diet of Worms: Luther excommunicated; goes into hiding in 1521 b. People begin interpreting the Bible as they will and challenge: The Twelve Articles; Peasant Wars (1525); Anabaptists; Luther's denunciation of revolts against

secular authority c. Charles V: diverted by Turks; Princes of the Empire divided d. Diet of Augsburg, 1555: Cuius regio, Eius religio: tolerance

IV. Calvin's Geneva a. Jean Calvin (1509-1564); lawyer from northern France b.

Institutes of the Christian Religion > predestination c. From movement to institutional

church: Geneva, 1541-64 d. The reordering of sacred and civic life: The Ecclesiastical

and Geneva Ordinances e. The spread of Calvinism > France, Scotland, England and


V. The Counter or Catholic Reformation a. Pope Paul III: internal reform of Catholic

Church (1530s) b. New Inquisition: creation of the "Papal Book Index" (1542) c. The

Council of Trent, 1542-63: 1) Scripture + Tradition; 2) Latin Vulgate 3) Faith + Works d.

Reform of private morals: marriage, confession, new modesty e. Splendor and awe of the

Church ritual: spectacle vs study f. Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) knight-mystic, founder

of the Society of Jesus (1540): shock-troops of conversion and teaching


Lecture 7

Religious War and Witchcraft

Introduction: a. Protestantism associated with rise of rationalism (Weber): decline of ritual and divine intervention, rise of literacy. b. But Reformation movements lead to

unprecedented civil war and the greatest age of witch persecution the world had ever seen

I. Spain and Italy: a. Intense inquisitions > preserve Catholic unity b. Strong monarchy in

Spain and power of the Papacy in Italy c. No major religious wars in these areas

II. England: a. After moderate Protestant Henry VIII, two fanatic monarchs b. Edward VI (1547-1553): radical Calvinist, persecutes Catholics c. Mary Tudor (1553-58) "Bloody

Mary": burns 100s of Protestants d. Elizabethan Settlement: 1559 creates the Anglican


III. France: a. Death of François I > period of weak Kings: Henri II (1547-59); Charles

IX (1560-74); Henri III (1574-89) b. Three-sided religious and civil war (1562-1598):

Catholic Valois vs. Protestant Bourbons, and Catholic Guise c. St. Bartholomew's Day

Massacre: 24 August, 1572 (3,000 Protestants killed) d. Conversion of Bourbon Henri IV

(1593); Edict of Nantes (1598)

IV. Thirty Years War: a. Peace of Augsburg (1555) > formation of League of Catholic

Princes (1609); Union of Protestant Princes (1608) b. Bohemian Revolt: "defenestration at Prague" 1618 c. First phase of war 1618-1629: Hapsburg Catholic victory with

Wallenberg, "Edict of Restitution" (1629) d. Phase II: 1629-48: Swedish and French:

Hapsburg vs. Bourbon e. Treaty of Westphalia (1648): Germany devastated (pop. decline

of 7-8 million); Bloodiest war until WWI; End of Hapsburg empire

V. Witchcraze: a. 1500-1650: 7,500-10,000 witch trials (80-90% women) b. Witches an

invention of the inquisition (1480s) c. Geography: begins in hinterlands of Italy,

Germany, Switzerland and Pyrenees, spreads as far as America and Moscow d. Phases: 1)

1480-1530 Dominicans; 2) 1530-1580, escalation with religious conflict 3) 1580-1630:

peaks in religious wars e. Popular witchcraze: vagrancy and social tension

VI. Conclusions: a. Religious Wars of 1560-1648 = turning point b. End of the attempt at doctrinal unity c. Emergence of secular political theory and institutions


Lecture 8

English Revolution and Constitutionalism

Introduction: a. End of Hapsburg dominance in Holy Roman Empire > fragmentation;

"little absolutist states" b. End of Hapsburg dominance in Netherlands > The Dutch

Republic (1582); economic and cultural renaissance (17th century) c. Hapsburg legacy

defined the two extremes of the consequences of the religious wars: absolutism and

republicanism d. The most important republican experiment in England

Causes of the English Revolution: a. Henry VIII: reformation and centralization > 15th c

England is a model "new monarchy" free of feudal lords and of Pope b. But it is built on

compromises: 15th c. see increase in power not only of monarch, but of Parliament as

well: King has no real financial or religious independence c. Elizabeth lives on

compromises, wits, and parsimony d. James I (1603-1625) profligate, unpopular and

"financially innovative" > beginnings of a constitutional crisis e. Charles I (1625-1642):

foreign, religious, and taxation policies > arbitrary power > Parliamentary revolt: "The

Petition of Right" (1628); rule without Parliament, 1628-1640.

The Revolution of 1640-60: a. The Long Parliament 1640-42: the Triennial Act; Trials of

Strafford and Laud; failure of compromise (1643-45) b. Civil War, 1645-47: Cromwell;

The New Model Army; Levellers and Diggers; victory for Parliament c. January 1649,

The King's Trial and Execution d. The Puritan Commonwealth (1649-60) and its failure;

Thomas Hobbes writes Leviathan (1651)

The Revolution of 1688: a. Charles II: from compromise to new conflicts, 1670 b. The

emergence of parties: Whigs (John Locke) versus Tories c. The exclusion crisis, 1679;

and new rule without Parliament d. 1688 revolution; William and Mary, Bill of Rights

(1689); Toleration (1690); Free Press (1695) e. John Locke's Second Treatise is

published, 1690

Conclusions: a. Dutch and English Republics lead the European Economy b. Ultimately

their greatest rival not one another, but France c. Most important consequences of

Revolutions are political: new notion of politics rooted neither in biblical authorities (the

Unam Sanctum or Calvin's Geneva), nor in historical precedent (Machiavelli or the

"Ancient Constitution"); but rather in nature and reason (Hobbes and Locke). e. Most

radical legacy, the Leveller's democracy, unrealized for yet a century or more.


Lecture 9

French Absolutism

I. The Fronde (1648-1653): a. France emerges from religious war in 1598 with the Edict

of Nantes > religious tolerance and strong monarch Henri IV. b. 1610-1653: period of

civil strife, culminating in 1648-53 in a civil war known as the Fronde (slingshot). c.

Causes: taxation, religion, constitutionalism, and succession d. All levels of society

involved, Louis XIV still a child. e. Turbulent period, but monarchy also extends under

Louis XIII (1610-43) and regency of Anne & Mazarin (1643-53).

II. The Making of Absolutism (1660-1672): a. 1660 Mazarin dies and Louis XIV

determine to rule alone b. Key ministers all non-nobles: Colbert, Louvois, and Vauban c.

Centralizes political authority > demobilizes Parlements; takes head of the Church:

Gallicanism; Reorganizes military, becomes commander-in-chief; subdues nobility. d.

Fiscal and economic reforms of Colbert create planned economy of national guilds;

produced unprecedented resources for King. e. New conception of royal authority: divine

absolutism > the King and the Kingdom are co-extensive. f. Royal culture and ritual:

Versailles (begun: 1671); Apollo the Sun-God; sleeping and eating ceremonial;

royalization of French culture: academies, societies and dictionary.

III. Louis' Great Wars (1660-1672): a. Foreign policy: anti-Spanish, anti-Dutch b. Wars

of devolution (1661-1672): expansion of north and eastern frontiers > French victories

under Vauban c. The defeat invasion of Holland and defeat, 1672 > French reversals d.

Dutch-French Wars, 1672-1688 (League of Augsburg 1684) e. 1688, end of Dutch-

English rivalry > Louis at war with all of Europe, 1689-97 > sues for peace (Ryswick):

only gains Strasbourg

IV. The Twilight of Absolutism (1680-1715): a. War exhaust royal finances >

"extraordinary measures" b. Economic recession 1670-90s; demographic crises: 1693-

94 c. Religious strife: revocation of Edict of Nantes (1685); persecution of Catholic

minorities (Jansenists and Quietists) d. Beginnings of political opposition: Duke of

Burgundy e. War of Spanish succession; 1703-1713/14: Piedmont and Sardinia f. Death of

Louis XIV, August 31, 1715: regency declared

V. Conclusion: a. 1715: France on the verge of bankruptcy and a child-king b. But a

moment of expectation and gaiety rather than distress c. Louis' reign lays the groundwork

for French growth in 18th c. d. Most important achievement: royal culture gives French a

sense of national identity


Lecture 10

Scientific Revolution

Introduction: a. Population and economic change > social instability b. Reformations >

religious uncertainty, end of European unity c. Religious wars > disillusionment with

church truths d. People turn from old authorities to new sources of truth

I. Origins of the Scientific Revolution: a. Medieval high magic > Hermes and alchemists

(Paraclesus) b. Practical sciences > cartography > measurement, lenses c. The medieval

cosmos: Ptolemy + Aristotle + Christian theology d. Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543):

Heliocentrism > Revolution of the Celestial Spheres (1543).

II. New Data, New Theories: a. New anatomy: Leonardo DaVinci and Andreas

Vesalius (1541-1564): Treatise on Human Anatomy (1543) > surpasses Galen b.

Astromony: Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) & Uranibourg: massive astronomical data

collection. c. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630): new data > new theories of motion: ellipses;

periodicity; new conception of space as empty d. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642): Revolution

in Aristotlean physics: the telescope; everything in motion; inertia = not rest, but constant

state, explain change rather than movement e. Galileo as new social type: the heroic

scientist, popularizer: Dialogue Concerning Two World Systems (1632); out on Papal


III. The Triumph of the New Science: a. The formulation of the scientific method in

17th century b. Francis Bacon (1561-1626). The Great Instauration (1607): new data >

new theories; empiricism and inductive reasoning. c. RenJ Descartes (1596-1650). The

Discourse on Method (1637): distrust of the senses > deductive reasoning;

mathematical rationality: "I think therefore I am." d. New Scientific institutions: the

Royal Society (1662) and the AcadJmie des Sciences (1662); first scholarly journals

IV. The Newtonian Synthesis: a. Unsolved problem in Galileo's theories of motion: if all

in motion in empty space then how does it all hang together? b. Isaac Newton (1642-

1727): the theory of gravitation: balance is created by the mutual pull of falling objects.

c. Newtonian system > end of the Ptolemaic+Aristotlean Universe.

V. Conclusions: a. New Science does not spell the end of Christianity, but redefines

man's relation to God: from divine intervention > God as watch-maker or an orderly

universe. b. No practical consequences of the new science, but offers tools to rethink

human institutions as well as the natural world.


Lecture 11

Lecture Outline: The Enlightenment

Introduction: a. Newtonian revolution > new faith in the order of nature b. Redefinition

of man's relationship to God; God now the watch-maker of a law-governed universe c.

The material world no longer a source of sin; nature now the source of God's most

undistorted truths d. Cartesianism > systematic doubting relies on individual reason;

implicitly egalitarian: all men (and women) reasonable

I. Critique of Authority: a. Question everything and decide for yourself, based upon

observation and reason > attack on superstition and religion b. Voltaire's Candide (1759)

embodies the new critical spirit c. From syllogism to observation > action vs. words d.

Theme of God and nature's indifference to man e. Man must make his own world as best

he can: work

II. The New Sciences of Man: a. Turning the scientific method on the human world:

analysis b. The science of politics: Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau > man in nature is free

and equal > government should reflect natural law c. Psychology: The Lockean mind >

from revelation to sensation d. Scientific history: Newton and Voltaire > a compendium

of useful knowledge rather than the celebration of glory

III. Knowledge and Progress: a. Descartes and Newton surpass the ancient

philosophers b. If all knowledge comes from the senses rather than a fixed set of truths in

books then it is infinite and ever-expanding > improvement and human progress is

possible c. Knowledge must be gathered up and exchanged in order to improve man's lot

> The Encyclopédie (1751-177) of D'Alembert and Diderot, is created to enlighten

mankind; to dispel superstition and spread light

IV. The Pursuit of Happiness: a. From the afterlife to here and now: happiness on earth

is attainable > cultivate your garden b. Rejection of the Christian idea of life as trial by

suffering c. Instead, our material impulses can lead to the greater good d. Adam Smith:

individual desire is a social good > creates wealth for all; Harmony of individual and

social good

V. The Spread and Triumph of Enlightenment: a. The Enlightenment as an

underground movement (1680-1730) b. The Enlightenment as dissident party (1730-70) c.

Political programs: Enlightened absolutism (Voltaire); Aristocratic liberalism

(Montesquieu); Republicanism (Rousseau) d. The Triumph of Enlightenment (1770-89)


Lecture 12

Enlightened Absolutism and French Revolution (I)

Introduction: a. What were the consequences of the Enlightenment in Europe? b. The

Enlightenment first repressed in France, but welcomed by Eastern European monarchs,

why? c. Why does reform fail in France?

I. The Making of Enlightened Absolutism: a. Late 17thc: Eastern Europe sees

generation of new monarchs: Russia: Peter the Great (1682-1725); Prussia: Frederick

William (1640-1688); Austria: Leopold I (1685-1705) b. Frederick-William: From

principality ruled by knights to monarchy; economic growth; modern civil service;

religious freedom; King as servant rather than master of the state. c. Frederick William I

(1689-1739): New army (goose-step); new bureaucracy (General-Ober-Finanz-Kreigsund-

Domanen-Directorian) d. Frederick II (1740-1786)("the Great"): Tolerant,

enlightened monarch: Friend of Voltaire and Diderot e. Prussia becomes model for Russia

under Catherine II (1762-96) and Austria under Joseph II (1765-90) who attempts to free


II. The Failure of French Reform: a. Social differences: Unlike England, French

aristocracy do not triumph; unlike Prussia, they are not defeated; also, large class of

wealthy peasants who are sole tax-payers. b. Political differences: Unlike England,

nobility have juridical monopoly on political power; nobility = 200,000 of 25,000,000. c.

After Louis XIV, King wants Enlightened Absolutism vs. Nobles who want Aristocratic

liberalism (Constitution) d. Third Estate's younger sons are reading Rousseau >

emergence in 1770s of Republicanism e. War of Austrian succession (1740-48); 7 Year's

War (1756-63); American Independence (1775-83) > Monarchy bankrupt > King forced

to call Estates-General for first time since 1614

III. The Revolution of 1789: a. Revolution of the Third Estate (January-July, 1789):

Kingdom of "three orders" or one nation of equals? Sieyès, "What is the Third Estate?" >

May, Estates-General > June 17, a "national assembly"; June 20, Tennis Court Oath: "a

constitution or death" b. Paris Revolution: The King plots; Paris revolts, July 14, 1789,

Bastille stormed, Royal troops routed, July 17, King recognizes the National Assembly,

and the tri-color flag. c. Peasant Revolution: Revolt against feudalism; countryside burns

> Deputies proclaim end to feudalism (August 4 decrees) and Rights of Man (August


IV. Conclusions: a. 1789 = Triumph of Rousseau: equality and public vs private law b. In

1789 the era of Kings ends; "The People" are sovereign.



Lecture 13

French Revolution (II)

Introduction: a. Decrees of August 4-11 and Declaration of the Rights of Man > end to

the feudalism, institutes era of rights. b. But would the King sanction these changes? c.

The March to Versailles (October 5-6, 1789): Parliamentary revolution dependant upon

popular insurrection.

I. Creating a Nation (September 1789-September 1791): a. Church: nationalization of

church lands (November, 1789); Civil Constitution of the Clergy (July 12, 1790) b.

Administrative and legal reforms: civil equality; departments; National Guard (Festival of

Federation, July 14, 1790) c. Constitutional monarchy (September 1791): ruled by

propertied men; Beyond the franchise: the poor, women and slaves

II. War Against the Monarchies (April 20, 1792): a. The King's resistance (Flight to

Varennes, 21 June 1791) b. "Declaration of Pilnitz," August 27, 1791; Preemptive war

declared by French, April 20, 1792 against Austria c. Fall of the Monarchy (August 10,

1792). d. Global war against monarchy: (Secours et fraternité, November, 1792); first

“ideological” war

III. Terror and Utopia (April 1793-July 27, 1794): a. A revolution of the

disenfranchised, March-September 1793: Sans-culottes (call for the "Maximum");

Women's clubs (1792-93); Slave revolt (August, 1791) b. Galvanizing the nation:

Abolition of slavery (August 29, 1793); Levée en masse (August, 1793) c. Repression:

convergence of popular revolutionary movement for social welfare, and need to reunify

the nation > "making Terror the order of the day" September 4, 1793: civil war (Vendée);

factionalism (Danton, April, 1794) d. Cultural revolution of the Year II

IV. Thermidor and Napoleon (July 1794-May 1815): a. Fall of Robespierre, July 27-

28, 1794 (9-10 thermidor, an II) b. New Republican constitution, but no consensus, 1795-

1799 c. On November 9-10, 1799: coup d'etat of Napoleon Bonaparte d. 1804-1814 the

Emperor conquers the world (almost) e. Congress of Vienna creates territorial states from

old dynasties (1815).

Conclusions: a. Revolutionary period > a new order in Europe: bourgeois and

meritocratic (for men). b. The birth of "Modern Europe": A new kind of polity comes into

being: the self-constituting territorial nation of self-governing citizens rather than the

dynastic kingdom.


Lecture 14


Introduction: a. French Revolution: From rule of princes to "the people." b. A second

"social revolution" in 19th century: princes, merchants, courtiers, priests and peasants

eclipsed by bankers, industrialists, professionals and workers. c. The "Industrial

Revolution": old view: a result of a technological inventions occurring between 1760 and

1830; new view: causes and dynamics are slower and more cumulative: occurs from


I. The Commercialization of European Life (1600-1800): a. Demographic growth: late-

18th century transformation: cyclical to linear expansion; 1st time in history (Thomas

Malthus, 1798) 1)- high mortality, low fertility > stasis (tradition) 2)- high fertility, low

mortality > growth (transition) 3)- low fertility, low mortality > new stasis (modern) b.

Agricultural revolution: increase in productivity: mixed husbandry; end of fallow;

enclosure. c. Transportation improved in 17th and 18th centuries > better food

distribution; creation of larger markets. d. Protoindustrialization: Putting out system >

skilled labor force and accustomed peasants to a cash economy. f. Expansion of credit and

trade (Adam Smith, 1776): Bank of England (1694); colonies; triangle trade (slaves,

sugar, cotton)

II. The Energy Revolution (1760-1850): a. From commercial to industrial capitalism

effected by an energy revolution: conversion from animate to inanimate energy. b. Phase

I: from wood to coal: England first, runs out of forest c. Phase II: The conversion from

horse, water and wind to steam: d. Mechanization: leading sectors: textiles, mining, ironsmelting,

printing, and railroads (1830-1860s) e. Mechanization > machine centered rather

than family centered units of production > factory-system

III. The European-wide Picture (1800-1990): a. Industrialization in other countries is

later but faster: role of banks, states, and heavy industry b. National patterns and rates of

development: England 1st (1800-1830); Russia (1890-1914);

IV. A New World Civilization: a. Mass production > commodification of everyday

life b. Internationalization of the economy c. Apotheosis: The Crystal Palace Exposition of

1851 d. Money economy corrodes old social order > new relations emerge

Epilogue: Three Phases of Industrialization in 19th-20th centuries: a. 1st Industrial

Revolution, 1600-1850: textiles, coal, iron, steam, RR, factories, new cities, new labor,

bad conditions b. Second Industrial Revolution, 1870-1914: steel, cars, gas, electricity,

chemicals, large-scale productions, science, cartels, assembly line, protectionism,

imperialism c. Post-Industrial Society, emerges from the two world-wars: consumption,

service economy, world markets, multinationals


Lecture 15

New Social Formations: Middle & Working Classes

Introduction: Today's theme: social consequences of the rise commercial capitalism and

industrialization; complete reworking of the social order > "three orders" replaced by two


I. Urbanization: a. massive urbanization of Europe in the nineteenth century:

1800 1850 1900

London 1,000,000 2,685,000 6,500,000

Paris 500,000 1,000,000 2,700,000

Vienna 247,000 444,000 1,675,000

Berlin 172,000 419,000 1,889,000

b. New industrial cities emerge: eg. Manchester (pop. 350,000) c. Over-urbanization > radical

social dislocation of individuals

II. The Notion of Classes: a. First usage as a political category is by the middle class in relation

to the aristocracy during French Revolution. b. Class appears as an economic category with

David Ricardo (1772-1823): land, capital and labor: classes in conflict because of their different

relationships to the means of production. c. Social definition (Karl Marx, 1840s): not an

objective economic status; people conscious of themselves as a class.

III. New Social Identities (I): Gender and the Middle Class: a. Separation of the spheres of

production and consumption. b. Masculinization of production and professions. c. Redefinition

of the family: from patriarchal domain to the private (women's) sphere as opposed to the public

(men's) sphere.

IV. Making of the Working Class: a. From peasant to wage laborer (1600-1850) b.

Mechanization and specialization > factory system: discipline (Luddism) Work is time, rather

than task, oriented. c. No family wage: women and children exploited d. Urbanization + labor

surplus > emiseration (1800-1860) e. Common oppression > class consciousness (1830s)

V. New Social Identities (II): Gender and the Working Class: a. No family wage; tension

between the sexes in relation to work: Women and children used to undercut men's wages. b.

The home no haven; social identity from neighborhood and pub. c. Working class social life

and politics are gendered masculine.

Conclusion: Next time: how these new classes acquire a political voice for their economic and

social interests.


Lecture 16

The Revolutions of 1848

Introduction: The massive socio-economic transformations of the first half of the

nineteenth century brought extraordinary political developments in their wake.

I. Europe after the French Revolution (1815-30): a. Reaction: European elites pour

forth horror at the terror and the specter of democracy: Joseph de Maistre, Soirées de St.

Petersbourg (1821): man is evil, vile, and corrupt. b. Restoration: Congress of Vienna

(1815): France: Talleyrand, Louis XVIII, Charles X; Austria-Hungary: Ferdinand and

Francis (Metternich); Russia: Alexander I and Nicholas I; Bavaria: Ludwig; Prussia:

Frederick William; Italy: Leopold of Austria > European borders are simplified and

rationalized: not a conservative, but a progressive move toward territorial states.

II. Internal Restorations: a. Russia: reaction > autocratic ; ideology of the purism b.

Austria-Hungary and Italy: Goulash of different nationalities; monarchs are weak;

ministers (Metternich) and the "Diets" c. Italy: Leopold rules; discontent with Austrian

domination d. Germany: agglomeration of imperial cities and principalities, Zollverein

(1834); middle class under an old aristocratic state. e. France: Liberal monarchy 1815-25;

reaction 1825-30; Revolution of 1830 > new liberal monarchy; Guizot: "Enrichissezvous"

III. Political Culture of Middle and Working Classes (1830-48): a. Children of French

Revolution: Karl Marx (Germany); Georges Sand, Proudhon, Ledru-Rollin (France);

Kossuth (Hungary) b. Emergence of a labor movement and the limits of reform: English

Chartists: Feargus O'Connor; Strikes of 1841-42. c. Political issues: universal suffrage and

social welfare

IV. The Revolutions of 1848: a. France: electorate = 241,000; harvest failure (1847);

Banquet campaign (1848); February insurrection; Universal suffrage; socialist element

(Luxembourg Commission) b. Germany: Prussian Diet of 1847; Frankfurt Assembly,

March 31, 1848 (German Republic) c. Austria-Hungary: Insurrections in Vienna,

Budapest, Prague (March): Metternich resigns; imperial family flees d. Italy: Nationalist

uprising in Milan against Hapsburgs (Mazzini and Garibaldi)

V. The Failure of the Revolutions: a. Divisions (republicans vs. socialists vs.

nationalists) b. Urban insurrection vs. rural conservatism (workers vs serfs) c. Fear of

workers > middle classes turn to old elites for restoration of social order: eg. French

"June Days" of 1848


Lecture 17

 Liberalism, Feminism and Socialism/Marx

Introduction: a. Could a moral basis for social and political life be found without

recourse to God's teachings? b. Alongside elite reaction 19th c. sees new modes of

thinking as well and new visions of the social good. c. 19th c. is the age of "isms":

liberalism, feminism and socialism. d. An "Ism" is a "system of ideas" or coherent sociopolitical

vision. A key concept from the French Revolution, the idea of "ideology"

I. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) and Liberalism: a. Origins of liberalism in

Utilitarianism (Jeremy Bentham, 1748-1832): calculus of the greatest good > English

reform movement b. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873): a super-rational intellectual. c.

Romanticism and Mill's reaction to rationalism > On Liberty d. The liberal ideal of selfrealization

of the individual

II. Feminism: a. 18th c. origins: Rousseau Emile (1762) (difference) vs. Wollstonecraft A

Vindication of the Rights of Women (1790) (sameness) b. Napoleonic code (1804) and

English Common Law: juridical dominance of husbands c. Feminists emerge in the 1830s

and 1840s (e.g. George Sand): women's journals and political clubs: child custody rights;

equal property rights; suffrage. d. J.S. Mill's The Subjection of Women (1869) >

Married Women's Property Act, 1870; no women's suffrage until WWI and after

III. Socialism: a. The "social question": 1830s and 40s >investigations into factory and

housing conditions; Society of St. Vincent de Paul (1820s); poor laws (1834); child labor

laws 1833 and 1841 b. Utopian Socialism: Saint-Simon and Charles Fourier: communes

and planned societies c. Trade Union Socialism: Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865)

IV. Karl Marx (1818-1883): a. Hegelian origins of Marx's thought: the dialectic of

universal freedom b. Marx's conversion to materialism: alienation and the dialectic of

class conflict; the synthetic thinker of the 19th c. c. From philosopher to activist (1840s):

The Communist League (1847); Communist Manifesto (1848); The International

(1860) d. Marx's legacy: greatest impact among intellectuals in societies in the early

stages of industrialization.


Lecture 18

Nations, States and Peoples (1848-1871)

Introduction: a. International politics (1848-1871) were about the creation of Europe of

nation-states. b. What is a nation-state? A state that corresponded roughly to "the nation":

a people who share a common culture, ethnic background, language and a common

history-- and who recognize each other as sharing these characteristics; communication is

key c. Regional, linguistic, ethnic, and racial differences were not the only ones that made

the notion of the unified nation-state seem a precarious in the 19th c, social differences

did as well. d. There is nothing natural about the "the nation," "the state," nor about

"society"; nor about their relationships. Nation-states had to be made. And they are very

much a creation of the latter half of the 19thc. Produced by both force and culture.

I. Conflict and Compromise in Existing Nation-States: a. Great Britain and France had

been Nation-states for centuries. But these states had to mediate the new interests of

various social, religious, and cultural groups in order to survive. b. The French Second

Empire (1851-71): Napoleon Bonaparte > from liberty to authority; champion of eco.

progress; ends in defeat to Prussia, and new revolution (Paris Commune, March-May,

1871) c. Great Britain: Victorian age of global dominance; era of political and moral

reform; faith in progress (Mill and Darwin); failure of liberal policies in Ireland and India

II. The Art of Making Nation States (1860-1870): a. The nation-state as a "work of art"

(Benedetto Croce) b. Italy (1859-1870): Cavour and Garibaldi unite the seven states and

the Austrian territories of Lombardy and Venetia to form a constitutional monarchy; the

risorgimento ("rebirth") in reality a rivoluzione mancata, "a failed revolution," a fragile

unity. c. The German Empire created between 1848 and 1871 created not parliamentary

negotiations, but by Prussian military might under Otto Von Bismarck; a militarist state;

the middle class adopts aristocratic values of the Junkers (Nietzsche)

III. The Multinational Empires: a. The Russian and the Hapsburg (after 1867, Autro-

Hungarian) Empires did not aspire to be nation-states. Nationalism in these regions of

Europe loomed as a threatening centrifugal force. b. Russia and the Great Reforms of

Alexander II (1860-64): end of serfdom, liberalization of institutions; intelligensia;

populism c. The Hapsburg (Austro-Hungarian) Empire: a dual monarchy, the "Ausgleich"

(equilibration) 1867: a kaleidescope of ethnicities and social differences; the Vienna

Ringstrasse; Sigmund Freud


Lecture 19

Fin de Siècle Vienna, Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis

Introduction: a. Triumph of liberalizing states throughout Western Europe in 1870s; and

reforming Empires to the East; era of progress b. But divisions coursing through these

new progressive polities c. Liberals challenged from above (Conservatives) and below

(Socialists); but also from new, more oblique and sharper angles. I. The Crisis of

Liberalism in Fin de Siècle Vienna: a. 1880s new political groups emerge: Christian

Socialists, Nationalists and Zionists b. New generation refracts ideologies "in a new and

sharper key": e.g. 1) Georg Schöener (1841-1921): transforms democratic grossdeustch

nationalism into racist Pan-Germanism; model for Adolph Hitler; 2) Karl Lueger

(1844-1910): transforms the old right, Austrian political Catholicism, into an ideology of

the new left (anti-semitic), Christian socialism; 3) Theodor Herzel (1860-1904):

assimilated liberal Jew > Der Judenstat (1896); founds Zionist movement.

II. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and His Early Career: a. Freud from the liberal Jewish

Viennese professional classes; Father a lawyer; Freud's hero Napoleon; political career

thwarted by anti-semitism > becomes a scientist; champion of reason. b. The rational

scientist: 1876 neurophysiology lab of Brüke; 1886 > Paris to work Charcot treating

hysteria with hypnosis; mental disorders are not physical dysfunctions, but result of

repressed memories of an early trauma. c. Freud's Viennese practice: 1889: the "cathartic

method"; sexual etiology of mental disorders > all neurosis the result of a repressed

sexual trauma: the seduction hypothesis

III. From Seduction Hypothesis to the Unconscious (1893-1900): a. 1890s: great

mental crisis for Freud: anti-semitism; professional frustrations; 1896 his father dies >

depression > self-analysis > guilt about his hostility towards his father. b. In 1897 he

abandons the seduction hypothesis and replaces it with the Oedipus complex: Instead of

seeing neurosis as the result of a repressed memory of aggression of parents upon

children; he asserts the opposite > they result of the repression of aggressive desires of

children toward their parents. c. Psychoanalysis is the work of making these unconscious

desires conscious and therefore susceptible to rational redirection.

IV. Dora's Case: a. Women were a problem to explain because their bodies don't line up

physical pleasure neatly with reproductive activity. That is, unlike men, women have to

give up at least some their pursuit of their own desire in order to reproduce. b. Freud view

of Dora's case is that her hysterical symptoms are the result of her repressed

polymorphous desires: In order to be cured, i.e., she must face up to the fact that she can

have none of them, and in facing that, let go of both her Oedipal and bi-sexual impulses

and be free to find a husband. c. In fact Dora isn't necessarily a patriarchalist text at all.

Because it exposes how constructed sexuality is. How contingent upon our interpretation

of it.

Conclusion: Freud's psychoanalysis is a reprisal to the liberal project "in a new key" of

the possible triumph of reason over the irrational, now seen as a continuous project

within all of us: The work of civilization is the work of rational organization and

management of deep instinctual urges.


Lecture 20

The "New Imperialism"

I. What's new about the "new imperialism"? a. Stages in the history of European

expansion: 1) 1492-1650; 2) 1650-1815; 3) late 19th century (1885-1914) b. New

imperialism in the context of late 19thc state-building, nation-building, and the bourgeois

"creation of a world in its own image" (Marx)

II. Theories of Imperialism: a. Economic: capitalism: i. non-Marxist (J.A. Hobson,

Imperialism, 1902); Cecil Rhodes and the Boer War (1899-1902) ii. Marxist (V.I. Lenin,

Imperialism, 1917); finance capitalism and the "new mercantilism": big business +

government b. Political: international rivalry and nationalism: i. the European "balance of

power," 17th-19th c ii. the "Eastern Question" and the colonies in the 1880s iii.

imperialism and the ideologies of nationalism post-1871 iv. Berlin Congo Conference

(1885) and the "scramble for Africa"

III. Ideologies and Actors within the New Imperialism: a. "Opening Africa": the

strange case of David Livingstone in Southeast Africa (1840s-1860s) and H.M. Stanley,

How I Found Livingstone (1872) i. exoticism: geographic discovery ii. missionary

activity: "Christianity, Commerce and Civilization" iii. jingoism and mass media in the

late 19th century b. The "Scramble for Africa": groups that support and back imperialist

projects: military personnel and civil service bureaucrats; imperialist associations

(Imperial Federation League in Britain, Colonial French Union, etc.) c. Ideologies: i.

Social Darwinism and the invention of anthropology as a discipline: the idea of

evolutionism, both physical (phrenology) and socio-cultural ii. The Civilizing Mission

and the "White Man's Burden" (Ruylard Kipling, 1898) iii. European (bourgeois)

civilization and the African as "Other"; the other as child; the other as "id"; the other as


IV. Conclusions: a. Industry and technology make possible the globalization of European

capitalism b. But political and cultural motives as important as economic ones: "remaking

the world in one's image" c. Imperialism = globalization of European nationalist rivalry


Lecture 21

World War One

Introduction: World War One and the "crisis of the twentieth century"

I. The Causes of the War: a. The assassination of the Archduke of Sarajevo, Francis

Ferdinand on June 28, 1914, and the conditions for the possibility of the outbreak of a

European War: i. ethnic nationalism in Austria-Hungary: the repression of Slavic

minorities, esp. Serbia ii. European alliances: the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria -

Hungary and Italy) vs. the Triple Entente (France, Great Britain, and Russia). iii. the

European arms race after 1890 iv. The decline of the Ottoman Empire and clashes on

the European periphery: the Moroccan crises (1905 and 1911) and the Balkan wars (1912-

1914) b. The Outbreak of the "Great War": assumptions about the positive role of warfare

as adventure (Imperial ethos), as spiritual renewal (Nietzsche), as healer of social

divisions. c. The "failure" of the Enlightenment

II. The Course of the War: a. The Failure of the Schlieffen Plan b. The Western Front: i.

industrial warfare: machine gun, flame-thrower, poison gas, exploding shells, tanks, etc. ii.

trench warfare, e.g. Verdun (February 1916), the Somme (November 1916) c. The Home

Front: i. censorship and propaganda ii. state control of the economy iii. new roles for

women iv. voices of dissent and protest d. The United States enters the war (April 1917)

and the end of the war (Armistice: 11 am, 11/11/1918)

III. Consequences: a. Immense destruction: end of European world dominance b. Growth

of the control of national economies by the state c. Female suffrage d. Crisis in European

and Western consciousness: Toynbee, Freud, and the decline and fall of (the ideal of

bourgeois) civilization.

Lecture 22

The Russian Revolution and the Soviet Union

I. Introduction: Russia and Europe a. 19th c. Russia sees itself as both in and out of

Europe: F.M. Dostoevski (1821-1888): "scratch a Russian, find a Tartar" b. The Russian

Empire about 1900: autocratic, vast, multi-ethnic, agrarian, but rapidly industrializing;

masses of migratory laborers.

II. Russia and International Socialism a. Russian development doesn't fit Western

model: peasant society with large-scale industry b. Russian Socialism vs. German

Democratic Doctrine: Liberal states make mass parties and democratic labor politics

possible, vs. underground revolutionary party in a police state c. Vladimir Illyich Lenin

(1870-1924) and Leninism: 1) A Vanguard Party, 2) Political base in an industrial

proletariat; and 3) a successful political appeal to the peasantry. d. Lenin and Bolsheviks

vs. Menscheviks (1903)

III. The Revolutions of 1905 and 1917: a. The Revolution of 1905: defeat at Tsushima

(May, 1904) and "Bloody Sunday" (January, 1905); creation of the Duma (parliament);

the St. Petersburg "Soviet" (Workers Council) b. The Great War: colossal but backward

army > defeat at Tannenberg (1914); 1800 mile front; war of attrition to 1917 c. The

Revolution of 1917: 1) The February (March) Revolution; emperor abdicates; liberals try

to win the war (Summer, 1917); Peasant uprisings; 2) The October (November)

Revolution: arrival of exiled revolutionaries, Lenin at the Finland Station proclaims

world revolution (April); Bolshevik Campaign for "Bread, Land and Peace"; Storming of

the Winter Palace (October), Bolshevik coup

IV. The Creation of the Soviet Union (1917-1940): a. Foundations of the Soviet System

under Lenin, 1917-1924: 1) dictatorship of the party; 2) creation of a socialist culture; 3)

Red Army wins Civil War; 4) World Revolution (ComIntern); 5) The "New Economic

Policy" (NEP) privatization b. Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) and the Creation of the Soviet

Union: 1) Industrialization through Collectivization, 2) Building Socialism in one State,

3) 5 year Plan (1928): Electrification + the Party > mass murder, imprisonment,

starvation, and exile c. The emergence of a Police State: purges of Trotsky and Bukharin

(1927-29); the cult of personality (1930s); State Terror (the NKVD) purges and show

trials: 1935-38: 100,000s killed, millions exiled and imprisoned, 8,000,000 were sent to

forced labor camps (Solzehnitsyn's Gulag Archipelago).

V. Conclusion: Today grandchildren of Stalin's victims repudiate communism and try

market capitalism and the nation-state.


Lecture 23

The Interwar Years

Introduction: I. The cost of the Great War: human (k, w, mia =37.5 million), economic

(lost decade of production) Phases: 1) 1918-1924/25: end of the war and beginning of

reconstruction. 2) 1925 to early 1930: “relative stabilization.” 3) 1930-39: the Great

Depression and the rise of Fascism and Nazism.

II. The End of the War and Reconstruction: A. Germany and the Weimar Experiment.

Abdication of Kaiser, 9 Nov. 1918; Friedrich Ebert; Kiel Mutiny (7 Nov 1918) and the

“councils” movement (non-revolutionary). The Sparticist Uprising (Jan 1919) and the

Freikorps. B. The Versailles Treaties. Division among the victors, fear of Bolshevism;

terms: German military cuts, territorial adjustments, reparations, clause 231 (“war

guilt”). C. The Weimar Constitution (August 1919): popular sovereignty, universal

suffrage (male and female), secret ballot; elected President, seven year term, sweeping

powers (Article 48); Reichstag (proportional representation). 1. weaknesses of the

regime: political culture suspicious of parliamentary democracy; military, industrial,

bureaucratic elites hostile yet not purged; stigma of Versailles. D. Crisis and Stabilization:

the occupation of the Ruhr (1923), hyperinflation, Gustav Streseman (1878-1929). The

Dawes Plan (1924). Treaty of Locarno (1925) Return of prosperity? 1. structural changes

in industry, increased concentration (I.G. Farben, vertical trusts). 2. Rationalization of

production Fordism (assembly line techniques) or Taylorism (scientific management). 3.

Fatal flaws: the debt reparations “triangle.” E. “Stabilization” in Italy: Benito Mussolini

and fascism. 1. Imperial and nationalist sentiments, disappointment with territorial

provisions of Versailles. 2. Malfunctioning parliamentary system (Giolitti,

transformismo) 3. Postwar economic discontent (inflation, strikes, Turin factory seizures

1919-20) 4. War veterans, fasci di combattimento: political gangsterism 5. Road to

power: The march on Rome, Oct. 1922. Acerbo law (1923); Dictatorship and the

“corporate state”?

III. The Culture of “Stabilization”? A. Mass culture; Americanization; anxieties,

Kulturbolschewismus 1. New industries of entertainment (radio, movies). 2. Weimar

culture and the sense of crisis B. Gender normalcy? Opportunities and limits for women 1.

The vote: Russia 1917, England 1918 (women > 30), Germany 1919, France and Italy

1945. 2. Roll-back from industry; reversal of war gains, and some 3. Reproductive rights:

limitations and pro-natalism ( esp. Italy and France)

IV. The Great Depression and the rise of German Nazism: A. The Great Depression.

Deferential effects by country. Mass unemployment (Germany > 6 million); catastrophic

decline in world economic activity B. Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) and NSDAP (National

Socialist German Workers Party) 1. Weimar weaknesses, breakdown of political system

(1930 Bruning cabinet) 2. Who supported the Nazis: social and generational factors 3.

Election of Sept 30: Nazis= 103 seats (second largest party). Fall of Bruning (May 1932);

conservative clique around President Hindenberg and the invitation to Hitler 4. Hitler as

Chancellor (30 January 1933); Reichstag fire, Enabling Act (March 1933);

Gleichschaltung (“coordination”): suppression of labor, taming of Nazi movement (30

June 1934); “racial” policy (Nuremberg Laws, 1935); the purge and culture.


Lecture 24

World War Two in Europe and the Holocaust

Introduction: a. World War II the greatest conflict in human history : cost the lives of

over 40 million men, women and children. Historians can say how it happened but not

why. b. Recall the 1930s : depression of 1929 > triumph of Fascism in: 1) Italy

(Mussolini); Ethiopia 1935; 2) Spain: the Falange; and civil war 1936-38 (Lincoln

Brigade); 3) Fascist parties throughout Europe, Asia and in America c. Germany: Hitler is

Chancellor (30 January 1933); 1) Political consolidation: Enabling Act (October 1933);

2) Gleichshaltung ("co-ordination" of military, society, and economy); 3) "Racial laws":

March 1933 Jews are expelled from public life; Nuremberg Laws (1935); Kristalnacht

("night of broken glass") (Nov. 9, 1938).

I. Causes of the War: a. Russian and German rearmament: 1930s: from war of attrition

to war of envelopment and movement (mechanization; airplanes and tanks): Blitzkrieg

(flash warfare) b. Hitler's imperial plans: Conquest of the east (lebensraum); satellites to

the west c. Western European appeasement: March 1938 > annexation of Austria to

Germany; German-Czech crisis Chamberlain and the "Munich Pact" (September 1938)

II. Course of the War, 1940-42: a. The West, 1939-41: fall of Poland (1939); fall of

France (May-June 1940); Battle of Britain (Aug.-Oct., 1940) b. The Russian theater

(1941-42): from Blitzkrieg to Attrition c. Global War and total war, 1942: USA and Japan

(Pearl Harbor, Dec. 7, 1942); Axis declares war on USA, December 11, 1942

III. The "Final Solution" (1942): a. Total war and the mobilization of resources in

occupied Europe b. The Jews and undesirables as slave labor: By 1944 there were 8

million foreign workers in Germany, @ 1/5th the labor force. c. The burden of Jews and

the "final solution" Wannsee Conference, January 20, 1942; extermination camps,

Chelmno, Belsek, Majdanek, Treblinka, and Auschwitz: 6 of 9 million Jews killed; 5

million other undesirables

IV. Reversal, Liberation and the Bomb, 1943-1945: a. Allied air-strikes; the

Mediterranean strategy; Normandy landing (June 6, 1944); Berlin falls (May 4, 1945) b.

The Atom bomb (Hiroshima, Nagasaki); Japanese surrender (2 Sept. 1945)

V. The Holocaust, Hiroshima and the Problem of Memory: a. In all over 55 million

people were killed or wounded; Entire peoples and their civilizations almost completely

obliterated. Numerous great cites, partially or entirely destroyed: Dresden, Frankfurt,

Brest, Toulon, Hiroshima, Nagasaki... WWII meant not just the mass destruction of

human life; but the possibility of the end of civilization itself. How do we comprehend

such mass human destruction? b. How can we speak about what seems unspeakable?

massacre; genocide; murder; Holocaust (Elie Wiesel). c. As a historical problem: 1)

history of mass death 2) history of anti-semitism 3) Beyond history, end of

Enlightenment d. My interpretation: all too human, all too historical: Germany's lack of

parliamentary tradition and rule of law.


Lecture 25

The New Europes, 1945-1968

I. Introduction: a. Analyzing history since WWII: closed archives, living memory b.

Europe in 1946: Churchill: "What is Europe now? A rubble heap, a charnel house, a

breeding ground for pestilence and hate." (dead= 55 mill.; homeless = 45 mill.;

widespread starvation) c. The task of reconstruction: new geo-politics of superpowers

II. The "Cold War" and the Invention of Two Europes (1945-49): a. The "Cold War":

coined in 1947 by an American financier: new global order as a non-military rivalry

between two blocks dominated by US and USSR (Communism and Liberal

Democracy) b. Post-war political settlement: 1) Yalta Conference (Jan.-Feb. 1945):

Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin (Germany into four zones; United Nations Charter); 2)

Potsdam (July, 1945): Stalin stands firm, no freely elected governments in Eastern

Europe; Americans resist; 3) The "iron curtain" speech (Churchill, 1946) c. Economic

settlement: 1) Truman doctrine and Marshall plan (1947), IMF and $74 billion; 2)

Formation of Eastern Bloc (Cominform) (1947); By 1950 all Eastern countries, except

Yugoslavia (Tito) are ruled by USSR controlled CPs. d. The Berlin blockade: division of

Germany and Berlin (1949); the Wall (1961); Two Europes (1949-89): NATO (1949-56)

and Warsaw Pact (1955) > a new notion of "Western Civilization"

III. The Remaking of Western Europe (1945-1968): a. Rebuilding Western Europe: 1)

The new futurist technocracy; 2) Americanization 3) New cultural nationalism (De

Gaulle) b. Towards European (economic) unity: 1) reaction to superpowers 2) past

precedents: Christian and Imperial; 3) New circumstances: nationalism discredited,

global technologies, multi-national capitalism, transnational labor force c. The making of

the Euro-economy: Organization for European Economic Cooperation (1947); Council of

Europe (1949); European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)(1951)> March 1957

European Atomic Energy Community and the European Economic Community (EEC)(6,

9, then 12 nations) single market; common currency, the ECU (1992).

V. Conclusions: a. The post war Europe divided in two between East and West b. In the

West, 1949-1992 > a dramatic move towards multi-national European unity c. Movement

towards unity has taken place in within two critical contexts: 1) Loss of global empires 2)

Emergence of two superpowers. d. By the 1960s Europe had been transformed, the

Marshall Plan and economic unity created extraordinary prosperity, but it did it through

the rapid implementation of a planned economic and technological revolution, governed

by a multi-national elite of technocratic managers. The social and political consequences

of this rebuilding from above next time.

Lecture 26

Western European Trajectories, 1950s-1980s

Introduction: a. Post-war Europe is post-nationalist Europe b. Post-Nationalist politics: 1)

Eastern European single party communist rule; 2) Western Europe: shared parliamentary

political culture: proportional representation; common parties: communists, christian

democrats (GB = Conservatives), socialists (GB = Labor); it is also post-Imperialist


I. Decolonization since 1945, the Revolt Against the West: a. 1945 to 1965: 40

countries gain independence, 800 million people, 1/4 of the world's population liberated

from Europe. b. Causes: Anti-imperialist independence movements; colonial powers let

go; Europe creates conditions for its own demise c. Phases: 1) Proto-Nationalist, late 19th

c.; 2) Bourgeois-Nationalism, early 20th c; 3) Revolutionary nationalism, post WWII:

India (1948), China (1949), Indonesia (1949), Vietnam (1954), Ghana (1957), Algeria

(1961). d. Algerian War of Independence (FLN), 1954-1960 (Franz Fanon) e. Massive

immigration into Europe from former colonies (especially South Asia, Vietnam, North

Africa and Turkey); former colonials now make up 12% of western European work force

II. Western Europe in the 1960s:

a. A decade of prosperity: 1947-57; new industrialization b. The baby boom: W Eur. pop.

> 380 to 421 mil. (1940-1959) c. Socio-economic consequences > employment; social

welfare; expansion of Universities > mass upward social mobility d. Changing political

culture: crisis of international communism post-Stalin (1953); appearance of independent

"new left" e. Colonial independence movements as models (Fanon); new themes: identity,

alienation, feminism; Beauvoir (The Second Sex, 1949)

III. Paris, 1968: a. Student movements for more democratic and less alienated society;

end of cold war "military industrial complex" and its global militaristic and ideological

aspirations: e.g. Vietnam War b. New alienating crowded cement block campuses, e.g.

Nanterre c. The student strike: March-May, 1968 (Daniel Cohen-Bendit): March 22nd

movement; barricades in the Latin Quarter d. The non-communist worker's strike: May

13-14; 300,000 people; May 17: 10 million on strike; France at a standstill e. De Gaulle

flees to Germany; counter-coup, June elections

IV. Conclusions: a. Post-Imperial Europe in the West a new era of multi-culturalism and

identity politics b. Order reestablished>end of the politics of class conflict: deunionization

of labor, decline of the communist parties, or their reform into “new labor”; emergence of

a new politics of identity: feminism, ethnic identity (SOS Racisme), gay rights, and

evironmentalism (Green party)

Lecture 27 Outline

I. Eastern Europe under and after Stalin: a. Only sources for history: samizdat b. The

Stalin era (1945-53): mass repression and conformity c. Kruschev: the thaw and protest:

E. Germany '53; Poland '56; and Hungarian uprising, suppressed by military (Oct-Nov.


II. The Prague Spring, 1968: a. Slovak autonomy movement; reform communism; Jan.

1968: Alexander Dubcek's coup; "Socialism with a Human Face" b. Prague Spring,

April-August, 1968, revolt of the intellectuals: Two Thousand Words Manifesto c.

Soviet repression to "save the bloc", August, 1968

III: Eastern Europe on the Brink: a. Poland: Pope John Paul II (1979) ;Solidarity strike

(1980-81), Lech Walesa, Lenin shipyard, Gdansk; Jaruzelski's counter-coup, Solidarity

goes underground, 1981-86

IV. Gobachev’s Reforms: a.1960s Soviet Union dominant, but repressive and at a

standstill; Leonid Brezhnev: policy of "no experimentation"; Solzhenitzyn and the Gulag

Archipelego Afghanistan,1979 b. 1985 : Mihkail Gorbachev: Peristroika (economic

restructuring) and Glasnost (openness)

V. 1989: a. Gorbachev trips around the Eastern bloc. b. Poland: February-June1989

martial law ends; Solidarity triumphs : c. Hungary: May Day demonstrations; resurrection

of Imry Nagy; October: Communist party > Socialist Party; independent Hungarian

Republic declared; free elections d. East Germany: May :the "cutting of the iron curtain,"

between Hungary and Austria; thousands flee "Wir wollen aus!"; Oct. 10: Honecker

resigns; Nov. 9, 1989: the Berlin wall falls. f. Czechoslovakia: October: Wenceslas

square, Prague, 300,000 demonstrators; Civic Forum in the Magic Lantern theater;

December: Vaclav Havel elected president of a new free Republic. g. December: Rumania

and Albania follow, and Yugoslavia comes apart h. Soviet Union: Gorbachev’s “reformed

Communist state’; 1991, attempted coup d’etat; Boris Yeltsin; dissolution of the Soviet


Conclusion: a. Cold war ends not in a confrontation between capitalism v communism,

nor America v USSR (NATO and Warsaw Pact), but rather through democratic revolts

within each of the European blocs (West: 1968; East: 1989)