History 5: Modern Europe, Renaissance to the Present -- Spring 2004
Required Reading

Final Examination Study Tips

1) The first part of the examination will be short identifications of key terms from the following list. The terms will be divided into two lists; one for the 19thc and one for the 20thc. You will be asked to identify three out of six terms on each list (six terms in all).

- Romanticism

- Proletarian

- Gorbachev

- Hysteria

- Thomas Malthus

- 1848

- JS Mill

- soviet

- Social Darwinism


- Communist Manifesto

- Warsaw Pact

- Marshall Plan

- Garibaldi

- Nuremberg laws

- Congress of Vienna

- Berlin Wall

- Belgium Congo

- Yalta Conference

- Bismarck

- Manchester

- 5 Year Plan

- Archduke Ferdinand

- Weimar Republic

- Treaty of Versailles

- Bliztkreig


- Bolshevik

- October, 1917

- Lenin

- Nehru

- "White Man's Burden"

- Mussolini

- Wannsee Conference

- 30 Jan., 1933


- Utilitarianism

- 1968

- Lech Walesa

- Franz Fanon

- The Second Sex

- Schlieffen Plan

- Division of Labor

- Wollstonecraft

- Chartism

2) The second part of the exam will require student to briefly comment on the significance of two out of three short “mystery snippets.”  You should review your documents in the reader from the post-midterm sections of the course in preparation.

3) The third part of examination will require students to write two essays in response to broad historical questions. Part one of this section will give students a choice of one of three questions on topics in the 19th and 20thc centuries. These questions will ask students to reflect upon one of the most significant developments or events in modern Europe. Part two of this section ask students to answer one of three questions, inviting reflections on questions raised by the course as a whole, from 1492-2004. Please note: in this part of the examination you will be invited to draw upon material from the first half of the course in order to answer these questions, and therefore you should review your lecture and sections notes from the first half of the course in preparing for this part of the examination. Some main themes and issues you will want to consider in reviewing for this part of the examination are:

- Which document has had greater consequence for modern Europe, the Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1789 or the Communist Manifesto of 1848?

- When, where and how did women gain equal rights?

- One way to describe the great transition from early modern to modern Europe is as a transition from a "society of orders" to a "society of classes."  How useful is this framework for explaining the course of 19th century political life and especially the Revolutions of 1848 and the "unifications" of Germany and Italy in 1870-71?

- In light of the events of 1989, which was the more crucial turning point in European history, the unification of Germany in 1871 or the Bolshevik Revolution of October 1917?

- Was/is the "new imperialism" the highest stage of capitalism? If so, what is the significance of decolonization in the post-war period?

- Since the Enlightenment (and especially since Locke and Descartes), most western Europeans have understood "man" as a being universally capable of "reason," and therefore of self-government (this has justified universal adult male suffrage in most countries), yet most European thinkers we have read until the mid-twentieth century, have nonetheless seen women and non-European peoples as unqualified for equal participation in democratic society until very recently. Upon what basis or bases have they done so and how did European's come to view these “others” otherwise? 

- Think about the causes (both long and short term) of both WWI and WWII. Some historians have argued that there is really only one "thirty years war" of the 20th century and the two wars should be seen as one. In your mind is this the most appropriate, or useful, way of thinking about the causes of these two events?

- One way of periodizing modern European history is by seeing the French and Industrial Revolutions as a moment of great transformation inaugurating a new economic, social, and political world. But another possible way of dividing the past five hundred years would be in three: the Christian era (1500-1789); the Nationalist era (1789-1945); and the post-Nationalist era (1945-?). Which makes most sense to you and why 

- Why did Fascism and Nazism emerge? Was the Holocaust an inevitable consequence of Fascism and Nazism? In the end, why did it happen?

- Primo Levi was a chemist, an exemplar of enlightened science and liberal ideals. How did this supremely rational man come to understand what had happened to him?

- Which was the more important precedent for the events of 1989: 1789 or 1848?