This course offers a broad introduction to the European Middle Ages through both textual and material sources. Change – as an individual experience and as a social phenomenon – is a central theme. Why did medieval people make radical changes in their lives? Why did European political systems, cultural expressions, and religious ideals change so dramatically over the course of the Middle Ages? The course charts the emergence of a distinctively “medieval” civilization after the demise in the west of the late Roman state and then the transformation of this early medieval civilization after the millennium. The roles of demographic and economic expansion are explored as motors for the radical political, religious, and cultural transformation of medieval society from 1000 to 1500.