This class covers the period from Mexico's independence wars in 1810 to the 1980s, with some emphasis on the theme of different kinds of "modernizations." What were "modern" politics in 1810? 1856? 1910? 1980? What about "modern" economies or "modern" gender relationships? What was "modern" Catholicism? How did advocates of these kinds of modernizations operate in the political arena? The common reading consists mostly of relatively recently-published books or articles that represent current historical approaches. The common readings will be in English; readings in Spanish are suggested but optional. Each week the professor will pontificate for 15-20 minutes at the beginning of the class on the general historiographical context into which the week’s readings fit, that is to say, classic works from the nineteenth and early to mid-twentieth centuries, plus books from the. Also, each week one or two students, depending on the number of students in the class, will present 2-3 books or articles that supplement the assigned books. They will also lead the discussion that week. Each students will present/lead twice in the course of the semester. Writing assignments are minimal: two 7-10 page review essays, based on the readings that students presented in the weeks they led the discussion plus possibly one or two other titles, to be determined in consultation with the professor.