166C Spring 2013 Modern France

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165A Spring 2013 The Reformations of Christendom

The European Reformations splintered Christianity, and fundamentally altered the political and cultural landscape of Europe. This course will focus on the long history of these Reformations, from their beginnings in the sixteenth centuries, to their aftereffects in the Enlightenment. In particular, it will investigate the connection between the religious events of the early modern period, and the formation of modern political society.

164B Spring 2013 European Intellectual History from Enlightenment to 1870

Reading primary texts, we will examine the major figures and themes in the intellectual development of Europe from Rousseau to Wagner. Included in the topics of the course will be German Idealism, Romanticism, Utopian Socialism, Marxism, Realism, Feminism and Nationalism. We will read works by Kant, Hegel, Goethe, Marx, Flaubert, Wollstonecraft, Kierkegard and others. We will also listen to Wagner's Tristan and Isolde. The intellectual and artistic currents of the period will be set against the background of European history as a whole.

158B Spring 2013 Europe in the 19th Century

Europe changed more rapidly and more dramatically during the nineteenth century than during any other period in recorded history. This course focuses on the forces that produced that change or were inextricably connected with it--industrialism, liberalism, nationalism, urbanization, the revolution in the technology of warfare, the unprecedented increase in population, and the spectacular expansion of Europe to the four corners of the earth.

100.007 Spring 2013 Special Topics: Early Modern Russia

This course presents an introduction to the Early Modern Russian culture; it encompasses the period from the Time of Troubles (beginning of the seventeenth century) to the reign of Catherine the Great (1762 – 1796).

103B.003 Spring 2013 The Caucasus in the Modern Era

This course is a historical survey of the Caucasus from the end of the eighteenth century to the present.  A number of features characterize this region, three of which deserve some attention.  First, the ethnoreligious diversity of its population is remarkable, for many small ethnies have been able to survive there for centuries in often adverse conditions.  Second, the region is also best understood as a corridor through which numerous invasions have passed, often leaving behind them masses of settlers.  Third, the Caucasus has been, and still is, a zone of contact amo


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