101.006 Fall 2007 Home Fronts: Everyday Life, Media and Total War in the 20th Century

During the First and Second World Wars, the experience of total war brought about a series of economic, demographic and social changes that transformed life on ";home fronts"; around the world. Shortages and requisitions of food and goods resulted in rationing, black markets and profiteering, as well as national collection drives. Shortages of manpower led to the employment of women, migrants, and prisoners of war. The mobilization of sons and fathers and the billeting of soldiers affected marital and sexual relations.

103B.004 Spring 2007 Was Ivan IV Really "Terrible"?

This course explores the rich historiographical tradition regarding Tsar Ivan IV ";The Terrible"; of Muscovite Russia (ruled 1533-1584). We will utilize the essential skills of the historian: critical reading of primary and secondary sources, and persuasive presentation of analysis in discussion and writing. Throughout the course we will turn our attention to the process of history writing itself, taking time to discuss what is history, why and how one writes history, whether it is subjective or objective, how it can be written well, how to evaluate the work of a historian.

101.008 Spring 2007 Private Lives in Modern Europe

This research seminar examines worlds that are by definition hidden from view - realms such as family, childhood, love, sentiment, marriage and sexuality. During the first four weeks, we will focus on the historiography and methodology of private realms in Europe from the eighteenth century to the present. How have women's roles and the place of children and emotions have changed over time? Indeed, how has the notion of privacy has developed since the eighteenth century? How has domestic life connected to and been shaped by ";broader"; social, political, cultural and economic forces?

101.019 Spring 2007 Empires in Early Modern Europe: Politics, Culture, Society, and Religion

This course will focus on the rise of the new empires of early modern Europe, namely the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, French and British Empires in the period between roughly 1400 and 1800. The study of empire has been a growth industry among historians in recent years, and this seminar will be sampling some of the main historical literature that has appeared in roughly the past decade. We will be sampling different approaches to empire including social, cultural, political, and religious themes and methods.

101.01 Spring 2007 Dreams of Heaven, Visions of Hell: Religion and Ideology in Late Modern Europe

This seminar will concentrate on the relationship between religion and ideology in Europe and Russia in the period between (and including) the French Revolution and the end of the Cold War. While the possibilities for research topics remain broad, the majority of our reading and discussion will be framed around the emergence and coming to power of what have often been called ";political religions";: Communism, Fascism, and National Socialism.

103B.003 Spring 2007 Image, devotion and religious spaces in Early Modern Europe and the contemporary Americas

The various reformations in Europe opened great contrasts in the way people approached the divine, contrasts that we can still see in the churches down the street and around the world. They also opened such a gulf of incomprehension that fellow Europeans could be so different, that it took wars and generations until they arrived at a modus vivendi. We will explore these differences in the past by reading primary descriptions of iconoclasm, of reformation, and of the ways that people in Europe and the Americas experienced a life with and without images.

101.011 Spring 2007 War Mobilization in 20th Century Europe

The 20th century has been Europe's bloodiest ever, with over 55 million deaths during the course of two world wars. This research seminar will look at how the European nation-state mobilized its population twice within one generation to conduct total war. The aim is to understand how the economic, political, and cultural aspects of the preparation for and experience of war differed from 1914 to 1945.

101.009 Spring 2007 Unmentionables: Censorship and the State in 19th and 20th Century Europe

During the nineteenth and twentieth century, the state's attempt to control information reached into nearly every sphere possible. Censorship concerned itself with state secrets and foreign politics, domestic discord and economics, nationalism and religion, and the maintenance of public morality that touched on matter ranging from dangerous philosophies to pornography.


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