A common theme since the late nineteenth century has been the persistence of inequalities. Across the globe, workers, women, peasants, racial and religious minorities, governments, and so forth, wrestled with various forms of inequality. How did these different social actors address them? Were the grievances of workers in, say, Buenos Aires and Mexico City comparable to those in Chicago or Manchester? Was being black different in Brazil, Cuba, or the U.S. during the 1950s? Were some governments more successful at redressing inequalities than others?