Margaret Lavinia Anderson

Professor Emerita
Education: 

B.A., Swarthmore College 1963
Ph. D. Brown University  1971   

Extended Faculty Field: 
Europe since 1453; Central Europe from the late 18th century on, especially modern Germany; World War I; Fascist Europe;
Research Interests: 

Until recently my work concentrated on political culture, including electoral politics, in Imperial Germany and in comparative European perspective, as well as on the intersection of religion and society – especially Catholicism in the 19th century. I am now working on the relations – at the level of governments as well as civil society – between Germany and the Ottoman Empire on the issue of the massacres and later genocide of the Armenians in 1894-1896 to c. 1933.

Profile: 

Employment:

Swarthmore College 1970 - 1989
University of California, Berkeley  1990 - 2010  

 

Representative Publications:  

Books

Windthorst: A Political Biography. Oxford University Press, 1981.

Windthorst: Zentrumspolitiker und Gegenspeiler Bismarcks. Droste Verkag, 1988.

Practicing Democracy: Elections and Political Culture in Imperial Germany. Princeton University Press, 2000.

Lehrjahre der Demokratie. Wahlen und Politische Kultur im deutschen Kaiserreich. Steiner Verlag, 2009.

 

Articles and Interventions

Shooting an Elephant, in Journal of Genocide Research Journal of Genocide Research (December 2013), vol. 13, no. 4; 424-32. Part of the Review Forum: Taner Akçam, The Young Turks’ Crime Against Humanity: The Armenian Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia, 423–469.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14623528.2013.856095

Confessions of a Fellow Traveler, The Catholic Historical Review 99/4 (October, 2013). Third in their series of Journeys in Church History, 623-48.

Helden in Zeiten eines Völkermords? Armin T. Wegner, Ernst Jäckh, Henry Morgenthau, in Rolf Hosfeld, ed., Johannes Lepsius – Eine deutsche Ausnahme. Der Völkermord an den Armeniern, Humanitarismus und Menschenrechte (Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag, 2013), 126-71.    

Anatomy of an Election: Anti-Catholicism, Antisemitism, and Social Conflict in the Era of Reichsgründung and Kulturkampf, in Markus Raasch and Tobias Hirschmüller, eds., Von Freiheit Solidarität und Subsidiarität – Staat und Gesellschaft der Moderne in Theorie und Praxis. Festschrift für Karsten Ruppert zum 65. Geburtstag (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 2013), 39-95.

Demokratie auf schwierigem Pflaster. Wie das deutsche Kaiserreich demokratisch wurde, in Logos im Dialogos. Auf der Suche nach der Orthodoxie. Gedenkschrift für Hermann Goltz (1946-1910), ed. by Anna Briskina-Müller, Armenuhi Drost-Abgarjan, and Axel Meißner (Berlin, etc.: LIT Verlag, 2011), 247-64.

Who Still Talked about the Extermination of the Armenians? Imperial Germany and the Armenian Genocide, Bulletin of the German Historical Institute (Washington, D.C.), Fall 2011. http://www.ghi-dc.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=89&It...

German History Beyond National Socialism: Forum, in German History 29/3 (September 2011): 470-484.

Who Still Talked about the Extermination of the Armenians? German Talk and German Silences, in A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire, ed. by Norman Naimark, Ronald Grigor Suny, and Fatma Müge Göçek (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 199- 220; footnotes 372-379. 

"Down in Turkey Far Away": Human Rights, the Armenian Massacres, and Orientalism in Wilhelmine Germany. Journal of Modern History, 79/1 (March 2007): 80-113

Germany and the Armenian Genocide: An interview with Margaret Anderson, 
by Khatchig Mouradian. The Armenian Weekly, November 11, 2006. www.armenianweekly.com, http://www.zcommunications.org/germany-and-the-armenian-genocide-by- khatchig-mouradian. Republished in journals in Armenian, Italian, Spanish, French, and German; and posted on the homepage of the website of the Lepsius Haus, Potsdam, Germany.

How German is It? in: German History 24/1 (Jan. 2006): 123-127.

A German Way of War? in: German History 22/2 (May 2004): 254-258.      Reprinted in Relevance. The Quarterly Journal of the Great War Society 14/1 (Winter 2005):22-24.

An Exchange on the Kaiserreich: Reply to Volker Berghahn, in Central European History 35/1 (Feb. 2002): 83-91.

Afterword: Living Apart and Together in Germany, in Helmut Walser Smith, ed., Protestants, Catholics, and Jews in Germany 1800-1914(Oxford: Berg, 2001), 319-332.

From Syllabus to Shoah? Central European History 34/2 (2001): 231-238.

The Divisions of the Pope: The Catholic Revival and Europe's Transition to Democracy, in Austen Ivereigh, ed., The Politics of Religion in an Age of Revival (ILAS 19th Century Latin America Series, No. 5: London, 2000), 22-42.     A Spanish translation was published in the journal of the Columbian Historical Association, Historia y Sociedad 6 (Dec. 1999): 59-84.

Clerical Election Influence and Communal Solidarity: Catholic Political Culture in the German Empire, 1871-1914, in Eduardo Posada-Carbó, ed., Elections before Democracy. Essays on the Electoral History of Latin America & Europe (Macmillan: NY, London, 1996), 139-162.

The Limits of Secularization: On the Problem of the Catholic Revival in 19th Century Germany, in: Historical Journal, 38, 3, 1995: 647-670.

Die Grenzen der Säkularisierung. Zur Frage des katholischen Aufschwungs in Deutschland des 19. Jahrhunderts, in Hartmut Lehmann, ed., Säkularisierung, Dechristianisierung, Rechristianisierung im neuzeitlichen Europa. Bilanz und Perspektiven der Forschung(Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht: Göttingen, 1997), 194-222. An earlier version of "The Limits," above.

Voter, Junker, Landrat, Priest: The Old Authorities and the New Franchise in Imperial Germany, 1871-1914, American Historical Review98/5 (Dec. 1993): 1448-74.

Liberalismus, Demokratie und die Entstehung des Kulturkampfes, in R. Lill and F. Traniello, eds., Der Kulturkampf in Italien und in den deutschsprachigen Ländern [Schriften des Italienisch-Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Trient, Bd. 5] (Duncker & Humboldt: Berlin, 1993): 109-27. Also published in Jahrbuch des italienisch-deutschen historischen Instituts in Trient 40 (Bologna, 1992).

Liberalismo, democrazia e nascita del 'Kulturkampf,' Annali dell' Istituto storico italo-germanico in Trento (Bologna, 1992), Quaderno 30: 137-163. An Italian translation of the above.

History in the Comic Mode: Jonathan Sperber's 1848, in: Central European History 25/3 (1992): 333-42.

Piety and Politics: Recent Work in German Catholicism, in: Journal of Modern History (Dec. 1991): 681-716.

Würdigung [Afterword], Ludwig Windthorst 1812-1891. Christlicher Parlamentarier und Gegenspieler Bismarcks. Begleitbuch zur Gedenkausstellung aus Anlaß des 100. Todestages (Meppen, 1991): 104-106. [Catalogue to traveling exhibition in Germany.]

Inter-denominationalism, Clericalism, Pluralism: The Zentrumsstreit and the Dilemma of Catholicism in Wilhelmine Germany, in: Central European History 21/4 (1990): 350-378.

Der Mythos der Puttkamer-'Säuberung' und die Realität des Kulturkampfes: Einige Überlegungen Geschichtsschreibung über das kaiserliche Deutschland, with K. Barkin, in: Historisches Jahrbuch 109. Jg, Zweiter Halbband (1989): 452-498. A German translation of "The Myth of the Puttkamer Purge...." below.

Windthorsts Erben: Konfessionalität und Interkonfessionalismus im politischen Katholizismus, 1890-1918, in Christliche Demokratie in Europa. Grundlagen und Entwicklungen seit dem 19. Jahrhundert, ed. by Winfried Becker and Rudolf Morsey (Böhlau: Cologne, 1988), 69-90. An earlier, shorter version of "Inter-denominationalism," above.

The Kulturkampf and the Course of German History, Central European History 19/1 (1986): 82-115.

The Myth of the Puttkamer Purge and the Reality of the Kulturkampf: Some Reflectoins on the Recent Historiography of IMperial Germany (with Kenneth Barkin), in: Journal of Modern History (December 1982): 647-686.

Prizes

2006 Best Graduate Syllabus in German History, awarded by H-German

1995 Best Article: Judith Lee Ridge Memorial Prize for best article by a woman historian, awarded by the Western Association of Women Historians. For "Voter,     Junker, Landrat, Priest...."

1993 Best syllabus in German Studies, awarded by the DAAD

1987 Best Article on Central European History, awarded bi-annually, by the Conference Group on Central European History. For "The Kulturkampf and the Course of  German History."

1985 Teaching: Flack Faculty Award for Teaching (Swarthmore College)

1984 Best Article on Central European History, awarded bi-annually, by the Conference Group on Central European History. For the "Myth of the Puttkamer Purge..." co-authored by Kenneth Barkin.

 

Scholarly Papers, and Commentaries, since 2000

Papers on Religion and Religious Identities in Europe:  on Ultramontanism and the Transition to Democracy at the Universities of Passau, Eichstätt, Munich, and the Free University of Berlin (2000-01) and Notre Dame, South Bend, IN (2003); commentary on three papers on Catholic Cultural Engagement at Home, Parish, and Workplace in early 20th century Germany, Catholic Historical Association annual meeting (2000); commentary on papers on Protestant Teachings about the Jews in Germany at the Conference on Christian Teachings about the Jews: National Comparisons in the Shadow of the Holocaust (sponsored by the National Holocaust Center and Kirchliche Zeitgeschichte) at Pacific Lutheran University (2002); commentary on four papers at the conference on Alternate Master Narratives of Religion in the Modern World, University of Amsterdam (2004); commentary on Catholics, anti-Racism and Mission to the Jews, 1933-65, Berkeley History Department Colloquium (2010); commentary on paper on Mendelssohn's Grandmother, the Bach revival and the Berlin Sing-Akademie at the Palais Bellevue, Berlin (2001).

Papers on Democracy, Democratic Transitions, Imperial Germany: "What Do Democracies Really Want?" International Conference on Democracy, the Economy, and the Middle Class, Strassler Center for Holocaust & Genocide Studies, Clark University (2004); "Culture Wars and Electoral Politics," Election Watch Seminar, Center for the Advanced Study of the Behaviorial Sciences, Stanford University (2008); "How One Authoritarian State (Germany 1871-1914) Made the Transition to Democracy - Or did it?" for the "Democracy in Hard Places" series at the Ash Institute for Democratic Governance and Innovation, Harvard Kennedy School (2010); "How important was Bismarck? Views of Contemporaries and Historians?" at Colloquium on Bismarck honoring Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Josef Becker, University of Augsburg (2011).

Papers on the Armenian Genocide: "The Enemy is at Home: Turks and Armenians in 1915," annual conference of the Great War Society, Kansas City (2004); "What does the Historiography of the Shoah Offer to the Historians of the Armenian Genocide?" for symposium on "The Past as Present: Representations and Consequences of the Armenian Genocide," UC-Berkeley (2005); "Armenian Blood and the German Conscience," at the American Academy in Berlin and at the Deutsch-Armenische Gesellschaft, Free University-Berlin (2001); "The Armenian Genocide: A German Story," Gonville and Gaius College, Cambridge University (2001), Sawyer Seminar on Mass Killing at the Center for Advanced Study of the Behaviorial Sciences–Stanford University, the Seminar on Genocide, Yale University (2002), and the Workshop of Armenian and Turkish Scholars, University of Minnesota (2003); "Geopolitics and Brotherly Love: Germany between Turks and Armenians, 1895-1916," American Historical Association annual meeting (2005); "Germany and the Armenian Genocide," at the Stanford Humanities Center (2005); "'Hinten, weit, in der Türkei': Orientalism and Human Rights in Wilhelmine Germany," keynote address at Conference on "Visions of the East: Orientalism and German National Culture," University of Toronto (2004) and at UC-San Diego, Minda de Gunzberg Center–Harvard University, the Borderlands Workshop on Anatolia, Eastern Europe, Caucasus, and Central Asia–Stanford University, the Institute of Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies' Carnegie Seminar on Extremism in the New Eurasia–UC Berkeley (all 2006), Georgetown University (2007); "The Limits of Coercive Diplomacy: Germany between Turks and Armenians, 1896-1918," Center for European Studies, Harvard-in-Berlin (2007); "Hell to Pay: The German Empire and Europe's First Genocide," Center for Advanced Study of the Behaviorial Sciences–Stanford University (2009); "'Jäckh of the Türks:' Portrait of an Enabler," conference on "The State of the Art in Armenian Genocide Research," Strassler Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies," Clark University (2010); "Who Still Talked about the Extermination of the Armenians? German Talk and German Silences," the Gerald D. Feldman Memorial Lecture, German Historical Institute–Washington, D.C. (2011); "'Das krumme Holz  der Menschlichkeit'.  Helden in Zeiten des Völkermords. Gruppenbild mit Lepsius,” for Symposium on “Johannes Lepsius: ein Deutscher Ausnahme,” University of Potsdam, Germany (2012)

Commentaries on papers on Mass Violence: at the Mellon Seminars on Mass Violence and Genocide, Institute for the Study of the Behavioral Sciences–Stanford University (2005, 2006); on three papers for the presidential session, "History as Recrimination," at the American Historical Association (2009); on four papers on “Decades of Reconstruction: Postwar Societies, Economies and International Relations, from the 18th to the 20th Century,” University of Toront (2013). 

Fellowships since 2000

2008-2009  John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation
2008-2009  Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University
2004-05  Martha Sutten Weeks (External) Fellow, Stanford Humanities Center
2004-05  Fellow, American Council of Learned Societies
2001  Berlin Prize Fellow, American Academy in Berlin

Selected Professional Activity

1993-2003   Member of the Academic Advisory Board (Wissenschaftlicher Beirat) of the German Historical Institute in Washington, DlC.
1996ff           Member of Board of Editors of Kirchliche Zeitgeschichte
1999             Prize Committee for Book Award for German Studies Association
2000             Visiting Evaluation Committee for the History Department at Notre Dame, University, South Bend, Indiana
2003ff           Member of Workshop of Armenian and Turkish Scholars
2003-06       John Tracy Ellis Dissertation Prize Committee (Chair, 2006)
2003             Director, Graduate Summer Seminar in History for the Erasmus Institute, at College of the Holy Cross, Worcester MA.
2004             Senior Fellow of Translatlantic Doctoral Seminar, Tübingen, sponsored by the German Historical Institute, Washington, D.C.
2006             Selection Panel for fellowship applications for American County for Learned Societies (ACLS) 

2007            Program Committee for the American Catholic Historical Association

2011-           Member of the Academic Advisory Board of the Lepsiushaus, Potsdam, Germany

Courses Taught at Berkeley

History 5: Lecture Course: The Making of Modern Europe, 1453 to the Present (Fall 2005,  Spring 2007 , Spring 2008, Fall 2009)

History 39: Freshman Seminar: Fascist Europe

History 39: Freshman Seminar: World War I in Experience & Memory (Fall 2003)

History 103: Upper Division Proseminar: World War I in Experience & Memory 

History 103: Upper Divisoin Proseminar: Fascist Europe

History 101: Senior Thesis Seminar in World War II

History 158-B: Europe in the 19th Century 

History 167B:  Lecture Course: The Rise and Fall of the Second Reich (Spring 2010)

History 275B: Graduate Seminar: Europe in the Long 19th Century (Fall 2006, Fall 2009)

History 275C: Graduate Seminar: Europe in the 20th Century (with Reginald E. Zelnik)

History 280U: Graduate Seminar; Germany and Russia Together Again (with Reginald E. Zelnik) (Spring 2004)

History 280B: Graduate Seminar: World War One: Crucible of the 20th Century (Spring 2006)

History 280U: Graduate Seminar:  History and Historiography of the German Question 

History 285B: Research in German and in European History (sometimes with Gerald D. Feldman)

History 285B: Research Seminar in Religion and Society in Europe 

History 285B: Research in Modern Europe (with John Connelly)

History 299: Graduate Directed Reading on Religion and Society in Europe from the 19th through the  20th Centuries

History 299: Graduate Directed Reading in German Socialism in 19th and 20th century

History 299: Graduate Directed Reading on European Land Warfare

 

Personal Information

Married: to James J. Sheehan, an historian at a competing institution
One daughter: Sarah Elizabeth Raff, Associate Professor of English and Comparative Literature, Pomona College, Claremont, CA

 

 

Representative Publications: 

Books

Windthorst: A Political Biography. Oxford University Press, 1981.

Windthorst: Zentrumspolitiker und Gegenspeiler Bismarcks. Droste Verkag, 1988.

Practicing Democracy: Elections and Political Culture in Imperial Germany. Princeton University Press, 2000.

Lehrjahre der Demokratie. Wahlen und Politische Kultur im deutschen Kaiserreich. Steiner Verlag, 2009.

http://history.berkeley.edu/faculty/Anderson/windhorst2.jpg

http://history.berkeley.edu/faculty/Anderson/windhorst1.jpg

http://history.berkeley.edu/faculty/Anderson/practicing_democracy.jpg

http://history.berkeley.edu/faculty/Anderson/translation.jpg

Articles and Other Interventions

 

Shooting an Elephant, in Journal of Genocide Research Journal of Genocide Research (2013), vol. 13, no. 4; 424-32. Part of the Review Forum: Taner Akçam, The Young Turks’ Crime Against Humanity: The Armenian Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia, 423–469.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14623528.2013.856095

Confessions of a Fellow Traveler, The Catholic Historical Review 99/4 (October, 2013). Third in their series of Journeys in Church History, 623-48.

Helden in Zeiten eines Völkermords? Armin T. Wegner, Ernst Jäckh, Henry Morgenthau, in Rolf Hosfeld, ed., Johannes Lepsius – Eine deutsche Ausnahme. Der Völkermord an den Armeniern, Humanitarismus und Menschenrechte (Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag, 2013), 126-71.    

Anatomy of an Election: Anti-Catholicism, Antisemitism, and Social Conflict in the Era of Reichsgründung and Kulturkampf, in Markus Raasch and Tobias Hirschmüller, eds., Von Freiheit Solidarität und Subsidiarität – Staat und Gesellschaft der Moderne in Theorie und Praxis. Festschrift für Karsten Ruppert zum 65. Geburtstag (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 2013), 39-95.

Demokratie auf schwierigem Pflaster. Wie das deutsche Kaiserreich demokratisch wurde, in Logos im Dialogos. Auf der Suche nach der Orthodoxie. Gedenkschrift für Hermann Goltz (1946-1910), ed. by Anna Briskina-Müller, Armenuhi Drost-Abgarjan, and Axel Meißner (Berlin, etc.: LIT Verlag, 2011), 247-64.

Who Still Talked about the Extermination of the Armenians? Imperial Germany and the Armenian Genocide, Bulletin of the German Historical Institute (Washington, D.C.),Fall 2001. http://www.ghi-dc.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=89&It...

German History Beyond National Socialism: Forum (one of 5 contributers), in German History 29/3 (September 2011): 470-484.

Who Still Talked about the Extermination of the Armenians? German Talk and German Silences, in A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire, ed. by Norman Naimark, Ronald Grigor Suny, and Fatma Müge Göçek (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 199- 220; footnotes 372-379. 

"Down in Turkey Far Away": Human Rights, the Armenian Massacres, and Orientalism in Wilhelmine Germany. Journal of Modern History, 79/1 (March 2007): 80-113

Germany and the Armenian Genocide: An interview with Margaret Anderson, 
by Khatchig Mouradian. The Armenian Weekly, November 11, 2006. www.armenianweekly.com, http://www.zcommunications.org/germany-and-the-armenian-genocide-by- khatchig-mouradian. Republished in journals in Armenian, Italian, Spanish, French, and German; and posted on the homepage of the website of the Lepsius Haus, Potsdam, Germany.

Ludwig Windthorst: (17 January 1812–15 March 1891), Europe 1789-1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire, ed. by John Merriman and Jay Winter (Scriber Library of Modern Europe, Detroit, 2006) European History): 123-127.

How German is It? German History 24/1 (Jan. 2006): 123-127.

A German Way of War? German History 22/2 (May 2004): 254-258. Reprinted in Relevance. The Quarterly Journal of the Great War Society 14/1 (Winter 2005):22-24.

Reply to Volker Berghahn, in: An Exchange on the Kaiserreich in Central European History 35/1 (Feb. 2002): 83-91.

Afterword: Living Apart and Together in Germany, in Helmut Walser Smith, ed., Protestants, Catholics, and Jews in Germany 1800-1914(Oxford: Berg, 2001), 319-332.

From Syllabus to Shoah? Central European History 34/2 (2001): 231-238.

The Divisions of the Pope: The Catholic Revival and Europe's Transition to Democracy, in Austen Ivereigh, ed., The Politics of Religion in an Age of Revival (ILAS 19th Century Latin America Series, No. 5: London, 2000), 22-42. A Spanish translation was published in the journal of the Columbian Historical Association, Historia y Sociedad 6 (Dec. 1999): 59-84.

Clerical Election Influence and Communal Solidarity: Catholic Political Culture in the German Empire, 1871-1914, in Eduardo Posada-Carbó, ed., Elections before Democracy. Essays on the Electoral History of Latin America & Europe (Macmillan: NY, London, 1996), 139-162.

The Limits of Secularization: On the Problem of the Catholic Revival in 19th Century Germany, Historical Journal, 38, 3, 1995: 647-670.

Die Grenzen der Säkularisierung. Zur Frage des katholischen Aufschwungs in Deutschland des 19. Jahrhunderts, in Hartmut Lehmann, ed., Säkularisierung, Dechristianisierung, Rechristianisierung im neuzeitlichen Europa. Bilanz und Perspektiven der Forschung(Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht: Göttingen, 1997), 194-222. An earlier version of "The Limits," above.

Ludwig Windthorst (1812-1891), Encyclopedic History of Modern Germany, 1995.

Voter, Junker, Landrat, Priest: The Old Authorities and the New Franchise in Imperial Germany, 1871-1914, American Historical Review98/5 (Dec. 1993): 1448-74.

Liberalismus, Demokratie und die Entstehung des Kulturkampfes, in R. Lill and F. Traniello, eds., Der Kulturkampf in Italien und in den deutschsprachigen Ländern [Schriften des Italienisch-Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Trient, Bd. 5] (Duncker & Humboldt: Berlin, 1993): 109-27. Also published in Jahrbuch des italienisch-deutschen historischen Instituts in Trient 40 (Bologna, 1992).

Liberalismo, democrazia e nascita del 'Kulturkampf,' Annali dell' Istituto storico italo-germanico in Trento (Bologna, 1992), Quaderno 30: 137-163. An Italian translation of the above.

History in the Comic Mode: Jonathan Sperber's 1848, Central European History 25/3 (1992): 333-42.

Piety and Politics: Recent Work in German Catholicism, Journal of Modern History (Dec. 1991): 681-716.

Würdigung [Afterword], Ludwig Windthorst 1812-1891. Christlicher Parlamentarier und Gegenspieler Bismarcks. Begleitbuch zur Gedenkausstellung aus Anlaß des 100. Todestages (Meppen, 1991): 104-106. [Catalogue to traveling exhibition in Germany.]

Inter-denominationalism, Clericalism, Pluralism: The Zentrumsstreit and the Dilemma of Catholicism in Wilhelmine Germany, Central European History 21/4 (1990): 350-378.

Der Mythos der Puttkamer-'Säuberung' und die Realität des Kulturkampfes: Einige Überlegungen Geschichtsschreibung über das kaiserliche Deutschland, with K. Barkin, Historisches Jahrbuch 109. Jg, Zweiter Halbband (1989): 452-498. A German translation of "The Myth of the Puttkamer Purge...." below.

Windthorsts Erben: Konfessionalität und Interkonfessionalismus im politischen Katholizismus, 1890-1918, in Christliche Demokratie in Europa. Grundlagen und Entwicklungen seit dem 19. Jahrhundert, ed. by Winfried Becker and Rudolf Morsey (Böhlau: Cologne, 1988), 69-90. An earlier, shorter version of "Inter-denominationalism," above.

The Kulturkampf and the Course of German History, Central European History 19/1 (1986): 82-115.

The Myth of the Puttkamer Purge and the Reality of the Kulturkampf: Some Reflections on the Recent Historiography of Imperial Germany, with Kenneth Barkin, Journal of Modern History (Dec. 1982): 647-686.